Abdominal pain, fever and GI bleeding

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Abdominal pain Microchapters

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Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Diffuse Abdominal Pain
Left Upper Quadrant
Left Flank
Left Lower Quadrant
Epigastric Quadrant
Umbilical Region
Pelvic Region
Right Upper Quadrant
Right Flank
Right Lower Quadrant
Intraperitoneal
Extraperitoneal

Differentiating Abdominal pain from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

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Laboratory Findings

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X Ray

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iqra Qamar M.D.[2]

Abbreviations: RUQ= Right upper quadrant of the abdomen, LUQ= Left upper quadrant, LLQ= Left lower quadrant, RLQ= Right lower quadrant, LFT= Liver function test, SIRS= Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, ERCP= Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, IV= Intravenous, N= Normal, AMA= Anti mitochondrial antibodies, LDH= Lactate dehydrogenase, GI= Gastrointestinal, CXR= Chest X ray, IgA= Immunoglobulin A, IgG= Immunoglobulin G, IgM= Immunoglobulin M, CT= Computed tomography, PMN= Polymorphonuclear cells, ESR= Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP= C-reactive protein, TS= Transferrin saturation, SF= Serum Ferritin, SMA= Superior mesenteric artery, SMV= Superior mesenteric vein, ECG= Electrocardiogram

Disease Clinical manifestations Diagnosis Comments
Symptoms Signs
Abdominal Pain Fever Rigors and chills Nausea or vomiting Jaundice Constipation Diarrhea Weight loss GI bleeding Hypo-

tension

Guarding Rebound Tenderness Bowel sounds Lab Findings Imaging
Peptic ulcer disease Diffuse ± + + Positive if perforated Positive if perforated Positive if perforated N
  • Ascitic fluid
    • LDH > serum LDH
    • Glucose < 50mg/dl
    • Total protein > 1g/dl
Gastritis Epigastric ± + Positive in chronic gastritis + N
Gastrointestinal perforation Diffuse + ± - ± + + + ± Hyperactive/hypoactive
  • WBC> 10,000
Acute diverticulitis LLQ + ± + + ± + Positive in perforated diverticulitis + + Hypoactive
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound
Inflammatory bowel disease Diffuse ± ± + + + Normal or hyperactive

Extra intestinal findings:

Infective colitis Diffuse + ± + + Positive in fulminant colitis ± ± Hyperactive CT scan
  • Bowel wall thickening
  • Edema
Disease Abdominal Pain Fever Rigors and chills Nausea or vomiting Jaundice Constipation Diarrhea Weight loss GI bleeding Hypo-

tension

Guarding Rebound Tenderness Bowel sounds Lab Findings Imaging Comments
Budd-Chiari syndrome RUQ ± ± Positive in liver failure leading to varices N
Findings on CT scan suggestive of Budd-Chiari syndrome include:
Ascitic fluid examination shows:
Mesenteric ischemia Periumbilical Positive if bowel becomes gangrenous + + + + Positive if bowel becomes gangrenous Positive if bowel becomes gangrenous Hyperactive to absent CT angiography
  • SMA or SMV thrombosis
  • Also known as abdominal angina that worsens with eating
Acute ischemic colitis Diffuse + ± + + + + + + + Hyperactive then absent Abdominal x-ray
  • Distension and pneumatosis

CT scan

  • Double halo appearance, thumbprinting
  • Thickening of bowel
  • May lead to shock
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Diffuse ± + + + + N
  • Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) 
  • Unstable hemodynamics
Intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage Diffuse ± ± + + N
  • ↓ Hb
  • ↓ Hct
  • CT scan

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