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RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAMP2 gene.[1][2]


Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. VAMP2 is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. VAMP2 is thought to participate in neurotransmitter release at a step between docking and fusion. Mice lacking functional synaptobrevin2/VAMP2 gene cannot survive after birth, and have a dramatically reduced synaptic transmission, around 10% of control.[3] The protein forms a stable complex with syntaxin, synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kD, and complexin. It also forms a distinct complex with synaptophysin.[2]

Clinical significance

VAMP2 is a likely candidate gene for familial infantile myasthenia (FIMG) because of its map location and because it encodes a synaptic vesicle protein of the type that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of FIMG.


VAMP2 has been shown to interact with:


  1. Archer BT, Ozçelik T, Jahn R, Francke U, Südhof TC (Oct 1990). "Structures and chromosomal localizations of two human genes encoding synaptobrevins 1 and 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (28): 17267–73. PMID 1976629.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: VAMP2 vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (synaptobrevin 2)".
  3. Schoch S, Deák F, Königstorfer A, Mozhayeva M, Sara Y, Südhof TC, Kavalali ET (Nov 2001). "SNARE function analyzed in synaptobrevin/VAMP knockout mice". Science. 294 (5544): 1117–22. Bibcode:2001Sci...294.1117S. doi:10.1126/science.1064335. PMID 11691998.
  4. Martincic I, Peralta ME, Ngsee JK (Oct 1997). "Isolation and characterization of a dual prenylated Rab and VAMP2 receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (43): 26991–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.43.26991. PMID 9341137.
  5. Li Y, Chin LS, Weigel C, Li L (Nov 2001). "Spring, a novel RING finger protein that regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (44): 40824–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106141200. PMID 11524423.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hao JC, Salem N, Peng XR, Kelly RB, Bennett MK (Mar 1997). "Effect of mutations in vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) on the assembly of multimeric protein complexes". The Journal of Neuroscience. 17 (5): 1596–603. PMID 9030619.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Chen X, Tomchick DR, Kovrigin E, Araç D, Machius M, Südhof TC, Rizo J (Jan 2002). "Three-dimensional structure of the complexin/SNARE complex". Neuron. 33 (3): 397–409. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(02)00583-4. PMID 11832227.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Paumet F, Le Mao J, Martin S, Galli T, David B, Blank U, Roa M (Jun 2000). "Soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in RBL-2H3 mast cells: functional role of syntaxin 4 in exocytosis and identification of a vesicle-associated membrane protein 8-containing secretory compartment". Journal of Immunology. 164 (11): 5850–7. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.11.5850. PMID 10820264.
  9. Imai A, Nashida T, Yoshie S, Shimomura H (Aug 2003). "Intracellular localisation of SNARE proteins in rat parotid acinar cells: SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597–604. doi:10.1016/s0003-9969(03)00116-x. PMID 12828989.
  10. Kawanishi M, Tamori Y, Okazawa H, Araki S, Shinoda H, Kasuga M (Mar 2000). "Role of SNAP23 in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediation of complex formation between syntaxin4 and VAMP2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (11): 8240–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.11.8240. PMID 10713150.
  11. Dulubova I, Sugita S, Hill S, Hosaka M, Fernandez I, Südhof TC, Rizo J (Aug 1999). "A conformational switch in syntaxin during exocytosis: role of munc18". The EMBO Journal. 18 (16): 4372–82. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.16.4372. PMC 1171512. PMID 10449403.
  12. McMahon HT, Missler M, Li C, Südhof TC (Oct 1995). "Complexins: cytosolic proteins that regulate SNAP receptor function". Cell. 83 (1): 111–9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90239-2. PMID 7553862.
  13. Pérez-Brangulí F, Muhaisen A, Blasi J (Jun 2002). "Munc 18a binding to syntaxin 1A and 1B isoforms defines its localization at the plasma membrane and blocks SNARE assembly in a three-hybrid system assay". Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 20 (2): 169–80. doi:10.1006/mcne.2002.1122. PMID 12093152.
  14. Margittai M, Otto H, Jahn R (Mar 1999). "A stable interaction between syntaxin 1a and synaptobrevin 2 mediated by their transmembrane domains". FEBS Letters. 446 (1): 40–4. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00028-9. PMID 10100611.
  15. Mollinedo F, Martín-Martín B, Calafat J, Nabokina SM, Lazo PA (Jan 2003). "Role of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, through Q-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor/R-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor interaction, in the exocytosis of specific and tertiary granules of human neutrophils". Journal of Immunology. 170 (2): 1034–42. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.2.1034. PMID 12517971.
  16. Jagadish MN, Fernandez CS, Hewish DR, Macaulay SL, Gough KH, Grusovin J, Verkuylen A, Cosgrove L, Alafaci A, Frenkel MJ, Ward CW (Aug 1996). "Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in addition to syntaxin 4 and synaptobrevins 1 and 2". The Biochemical Journal. 317. 317 (3): 945–54. doi:10.1042/bj3170945. PMC 1217577. PMID 8760387.
  17. Reed GL, Houng AK, Fitzgerald ML (Apr 1999). "Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion". Blood. 93 (8): 2617–26. PMID 10194441.

Further reading