Upper motor neuron lesion

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Upper motor neuron lesion
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The motor tract.

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2] Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.

Overview

An upper motor neuron lesion is a lesion of the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. This is in contrast to a lower motor neuron lesion, which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord to the relevant muscle(s).

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular accident, Stroke 
Chemical/Poisoning Lathyrus poisoning
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Pellagra
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Adult polyglucosan body disease
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Adult polyglucosan body disease
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic Leukoencephalopathy , Pernicious anemia, Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Quaternary syphilis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Cervical myelopathy, Cervical spondylosis, Friedreich ataxia, Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, Spastic paralysis, Spinal cord injury, Subacute combined degeneration of the cord, X-linked sideroblastic ataxia
Neurologic Cerebral palsy, Cerebrovascular accident, Cervical myelopathy, Cervical spondylosis, Friedreich ataxia, Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis, Konzo, Motor neuron disease, Multiple sclerosis, Pseudobulbar palsy, Spastic paralysis, Spina bifida, Spinal cord injury, Subacute combined degeneration of the cord, Syringomyelia, Traumatic brain injury, Weber syndrome, X-linked sideroblastic ataxia
Nutritional/Metabolic Vitamin b12 deficiency
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual Quaternary syphilis
Trauma Traumatic brain injury
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Symptoms

Corticospinal/pyramidal tract

These are the neural tracts which descend in the spinal cord, in the lateral columns, carrying signals for voluntary movement of skeletal muscle. These nerve fibres usually originate in the cerebral cortex, then gather in the internal capsule before crossing over to the opposite side (decussation) in the medulla oblongata and proceeding down the spinal cord to meet lower motor neurons in the anterior horn.

See also

References

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