Typhus risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [2]


Travelers are at risk for exposure to agents of rickettsial diseases if they engage in occupational or recreational activities which bring them into contact with habitats that support the vectors or animal reservoir species associated with these pathogens. Immunocompromised patients are also at risk.[1][2][3]

Risk Factors


  1. Moon KM, Han MS, Rim CB, Lee JH, Kang MS, Kim JH, Kim SI, Jung SY, Cho Y (2016). "Risk Factors for Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Scrub Typhus Admitted to Intensive Care Unit at a University Hospital". Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul). 79 (1): 31–6. doi:10.4046/trd.2016.79.1.31. PMC 4701791. PMID 26770232.
  2. Umulisa I, Omolo J, Muldoon KA, Condo J, Habiyaremye F, Uwimana JM, Muhimpundu MA, Galgalo T, Rwunganira S, Dahourou AG, Tongren E, Koama JB, McQuiston J, Raghunathan PL, Massung R, Gatei W, Boer K, Nyatanyi T, Mills EJ, Binagwaho A (2016). "A Mixed Outbreak of Epidemic Typhus Fever and Trench Fever in a Youth Rehabilitation Center: Risk Factors for Illness from a Case-Control Study, Rwanda, 2012". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95 (2): 452–6. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643. PMID 27352876.
  3. Botelho-Nevers E, Raoult D (2011). "Host, pathogen and treatment-related prognostic factors in rickettsioses". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30 (10): 1139–50. doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1208-z. PMID 21519943.