Typhoid fever history and symptoms

Jump to: navigation, search

Typhoid fever Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Typhoid fever from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X ray

CT

MRI

Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other diagnostic tests

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Typhoid fever history and symptoms On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Typhoid fever history and symptoms

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Typhoid fever history and symptoms

CDC on Typhoid fever history and symptoms

Typhoid fever history and symptoms in the news

Blogs on Typhoid fever history and symptoms

Directions to Hospitals Treating Typhoid fever

Risk calculators and risk factors for Typhoid fever history and symptoms

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

Symptoms of typhoid fever include incremental increases in temperature initially and than sustained fever as high as 40°C (104°F);[1] profuse sweating; influenza-like symptoms with chills, malaise, and headache;[2] poorly localized abdominal pain;[3] diarrhea;[4] constipation; loss of appetite; nausea;[3] and vomiting. Obtaining a complete and accurate history is the most important aspect of making a diagnosis of typhoid fever. It provides insight into cause, risk factors, and comorbid conditions.

History

Obtaining a complete and accurate history is the most important aspect of making a diagnosis of typhoid fever. It provides insight into cause, risk factors, and comorbid conditions. A complete history will be helpful for determining the ideal therapy and the prognosis. Symptomatic presentation of the patient depends mainly on the clinical stage of typhoid fever. Key points in history which can lead to diagnosis of typhoid fever include:[5][6][7][8][9]

Symptoms

Symptoms of typhoid fever include:[15][1][16][17][2][2][18][19][3][20][21]

Most common symptoms

Less common symptoms

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 STUART BM, PULLEN RL (1946). "Typhoid; clinical analysis of 360 cases". Arch Intern Med (Chic). 78 (6): 629–61. PMID 20278487.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Hoffman SL, Punjabi NH, Kumala S, Moechtar MA, Pulungsih SP, Rivai AR; et al. (1984). "Reduction of mortality in chloramphenicol-treated severe typhoid fever by high-dose dexamethasone". N Engl J Med. 310 (2): 82–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM198401123100203. PMID 6361558.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Pohan HT (2004). "Clinical and laboratory manifestations of typhoid fever at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta". Acta Med Indones. 36 (2): 78–83. PMID 15673941.
  4. Butler, Thomas, et al. "Patterns of Morbidity and Mortality in Typhoid Fever Dependent on Age and Gender: Review of 552 Hopitalized Patients with Diarrhea." Review of Infectious Diseases 13.1 (1991): 85-90.
  5. Luby SP, Faizan MK, Fisher-Hoch SP, Syed A, Mintz ED, Bhutta ZA; et al. (1998). "Risk factors for typhoid fever in an endemic setting, Karachi, Pakistan". Epidemiol Infect. 120 (2): 129–38. PMC 2809381. PMID 9593481.
  6. Marshall E, Howells RE (1986). "Turnover of the surface proteins of adult and third and fourth stage larval Brugia pahangi". Mol Biochem Parasitol. 18 (1): 17–24. PMID 2870432.
  7. Srikantiah P, Vafokulov S, Luby SP, Ishmail T, Earhart K, Khodjaev N; et al. (2007). "Epidemiology and risk factors for endemic typhoid fever in Uzbekistan". Trop Med Int Health. 12 (7): 838–47. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01853.x. PMID 17596250.
  8. Mermin, Jonathan H., et al. "A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water." Journal of Infectious Diseases 179.6 (1999): 1416-1422.
  9. Black, Robert E., et al. "Case—control study to identify risk factors for paediatric endemic typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63.5 (1985): 899.
  10. Ekdahl, Karl, Birgitta de Jong, and Yvonne Andersson. "Risk of travel-associated typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in various regions." Journal of travel medicine 12.4 (2005): 197-204.
  11. Weinberg ED (2008). "Survival advantage of the hemochromatosis C282Y mutation". Perspect Biol Med. 51 (1): 98–102. doi:10.1353/pbm.2008.0001. PMID 18192769.
  12. Moalem S, Weinberg ED, Percy ME (2004). "Hemochromatosis and the enigma of misplaced iron: implications for infectious disease and survival". Biometals. 17 (2): 135–9. PMID 15088940.
  13. van de Vosse E, de Visser AW, Al-Attar S, Vossen R, Ali S, van Dissel JT (2010). "Distribution of CFTR variations in an Indonesian enteric fever cohort". Clin Infect Dis. 50 (9): 1231–7. doi:10.1086/651598. PMID 20233062.
  14. Christie AB. Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Clinical Practice. Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone, 1987
  15. Butler T, Islam A, Kabir I, Jones PK (1991). "Patterns of morbidity and mortality in typhoid fever dependent on age and gender: review of 552 hospitalized patients with diarrhea". Rev Infect Dis. 13 (1): 85–90. PMID 2017639.
  16. "CDC Typhoid Fever". Center for Disease Control. 2005-10-25. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
  17. Gotuzzo E, Frisancho O, Sanchez J, Liendo G, Carrillo C, Black RE; et al. (1991). "Association between the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and infection with Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi in an endemic typhoid area". Arch Intern Med. 151 (2): 381–2. PMID 1899554.
  18. Lutterloh E, Likaka A, Sejvar J, Manda R, Naiene J, Monroe SS; et al. (2012). "Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever with neurologic findings on the Malawi-Mozambique border". Clin Infect Dis. 54 (8): 1100–6. doi:10.1093/cid/cis012. PMID 22357702.
  19. Butler, Thomas, et al. "Patterns of Morbidity and Mortality in Typhoid Fever Dependent on Age and Gender: Review of 552 Hopitalized Patients with Diarrhea." Review of Infectious Diseases 13.1 (1991): 85-90.
  20. Thriemer K, Ley B, Ley BB, Ame SS, Deen JL, Pak GD; et al. (2012). "Clinical and epidemiological features of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar: assessment of the performance of the WHO case definitions". PLoS One. 7 (12): e51823. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051823. PMC 3527440. PMID 23284780.
  21. Haq SA, Alam MN, Hossain SM, Ahmed T, Tahir M (1997). "Value of clinical features in the diagnosis of enteric fever". Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 23 (2): 42–6. PMID 9465434.
  22. Butler, Thomas, et al. "Patterns of Morbidity and Mortality in Typhoid Fever Dependent on Age and Gender: Review of 552 Hopitalized Patients with Diarrhea." Review of Infectious Diseases 13.1 (1991): 85-90.
  23. "CDC Typhoid Fever". Center for Disease Control. 2005-10-25. Retrieved 2007-10-02.

Linked-in.jpg