Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

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Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
ICD-10 D55.2
ICD-9 282.3
OMIM 190450
DiseasesDB 30116

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder which was initially described in 1965.[1] It is a unique glycolytic enzymopathy that is characterized by chronic haemolytic anaemia, cardiomyopathy, susceptibility to infections, severe neurological dysfunction, and, in most cases, death in early childhood.[2] As mentioned, the disease is exceptionally rare with less than 100 patients diagnosed worldwide. In these patients, thirteen different mutations in the respective gene, which is located at chromosome 12p13 and encodes the ubiquitous housekeeping enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), have been discovered so far.[2] TPI is a crucial enzyme of glycolysis and catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. A marked decrease in TPI activity and an accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate have been detected in erythrocyte extracts of homozygous (two identical mutant alleles) and compound heterozygous (two different mutant alleles) TPI deficiency patients. Remarkably, heterozygous individuals are clinically unaffected, even if their residual TPI activity is reduced. Recent work suggests that not a direct inactivation, but an alteration in TPI dimerization might underlie the pathology.[3] This might explain why the disease is rare, but inactive TPI alleles have been detected at higher frequency implicating a heterozygote advantage of inactive TPI alleles.

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.


References

  1. Schneider, Arthur S. (1965). "Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia with Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency". New England Journal of Medicine. 272: 229–235. PubMed.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Schneider, Arthur S. (2000). "Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: historical perspectives and molecular aspects". 13 (1): 119–140. doi:10.1053/beha.2000.0061. PubMed. Retrieved 2006-12-22.  Text " Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology " ignored (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Ralser, Markus (December 20, 2006). "Triose Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Caused by Altered Dimerization–Not Catalytic Inactivity–of the Mutant Enzymes". PLoS ONE. 1 (1): e30. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000030. Retrieved 2006-12-22.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)

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