Tinea manuum

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Tinea manuum
ICD-10 B35.2
ICD-9 110.2

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [2]

Overview

Tinea Manuum is a parasitic fungal infection (mycosis) of the hand in the dermatophytosis (tinea) group. It is typically more aggressive than tinea pedis but similar in look. Itching, burning, cracking, and scaling are observable and may be transmitted sexually or otherwise, whether or not symptoms are present.

Diagnosis

Physical Examination

Skin

Hand

Differential diagnosis

Tinea manuum must be differentiated from other diseases that cause ust be differentiated from other diseases that cause rash and eczema such as secondary syphilis and pityriasis rosea.

Disease Rash Characteristics Signs and Symptoms Associated Conditions Images
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma/Mycosis fungoides[2]
Pityriasis rosea[3]
  • Pink or salmon in color, which may be scaly; referred to as "herald patch"
  • Oval shape
  • Long axis oriented along the cleavage lines
  • Distributed on the trunk and proximal extremities
  • Squamous marginal collarette and a “fir-tree” or “Christmas tree” distribution on posterior trunk
  • Secondary to viral infections
  • Resolves spontaneously after 6-8 weeks
By James Heilman,MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16305230
Pityriasis lichenoides chronica
  • Recurrent lesions are usually less evenly scattered than in cases of psoriasis
  • Brownish red or orange-brown in color
  • Lesions are capped by a single detachable, opaque, mica-like scale
  • Often leave hypopigmented macules
Nummular dermatitis[6]
  • Lesions commonly relapse after occasional remission or may persist for long periods
  • Pruritus
Secondary syphilis[7]
  • Round, coppery, red colored lesions on palms and soles
  • Papules with collarette of scales
By James Heilman,MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16305230
Bowen’s disease[8]
  • Erythematous, small, scaly plaque, which enlarges erratically over time
  • Scale is usually yellow or white and it is easily detachable without any bleeding
  • Well-defined margins
By Klaus D. Peter, Gummersbach, Germany - Own work (own photograph), CC BY 3.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6839115
Exanthematous pustulosis[10]
By See below - (2010). "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: an unusual side effect of meropenem". Indian J Dermatol 55 (2): 176–7. DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.62759. PMID 20606889. PMC: 2887524., CC BY 1.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52979729
Hypertrophic lichen planus[12]
Di James Heilman, MD - Opera propria, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11509003
Sneddon–Wilkinson disease[14]
  • Flaccid pustules that are often generalized and have a tendency to involve the flexural areas
  • Annular configuration
Small plaque parapsoriasis[18]
  • Erythematous plaques with fine scaly surface
  • May present with elongated, finger-like patches
  • Symmetrical distribution on the flanks
  • Known as digitate dermatosis
  • Lesions may be asymptomatic
  • May be mildly pruritic
  • May fade or disappear after sun exposure during the summer season, but typically recur during the winter
Intertrigo[20]
Langerhans cell histiocytosis[21]
  • Scaling and crusting of scalp
Tinea manuum/pedum/capitis[25]
  • Scaling, flaking, and sometimes blistering of the affected areas
  • Hair loss with a black dot on scalp in case of tinea capitis
Seborrheic dermatitis
By Roymishali - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27267929

Treatment

It can usually be treated with long term use of a topical antifungal cream such as selenium sulfide shampoo. However, in some cases an oral antifungal such as griseofulvin may have to be prescribed.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Dermatology Atlas".
  2. "Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version - National Cancer Institute".
  3. Mahajan K, Relhan V, Relhan AK, Garg VK (2016). "Pityriasis Rosea: An Update on Etiopathogenesis and Management of Difficult Aspects". Indian J Dermatol. 61 (4): 375–84. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.185699. PMC 4966395. PMID 27512182.
  4. Prantsidis A, Rigopoulos D, Papatheodorou G, Menounos P, Gregoriou S, Alexiou-Mousatou I, Katsambas A (2009). "Detection of human herpesvirus 8 in the skin of patients with pityriasis rosea". Acta Derm. Venereol. 89 (6): 604–6. doi:10.2340/00015555-0703. PMID 19997691.
  5. Smith KJ, Nelson A, Skelton H, Yeager J, Wagner KF (1997). "Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta in HIV-1+ patients: a marker of early stage disease. The Military Medical Consortium for the Advancement of Retroviral Research (MMCARR)". Int. J. Dermatol. 36 (2): 104–9. PMID 9109005.
  6. Jiamton S, Tangjaturonrusamee C, Kulthanan K (2013). "Clinical features and aggravating factors in nummular eczema in Thais". Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol. 31 (1): 36–42. PMID 23517392.
  7. "STD Facts - Syphilis".
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  9. Murao K, Yoshioka R, Kubo Y (2014). "Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: negative p53 expression, not p16(INK4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease". J. Dermatol. 41 (10): 878–84. doi:10.1111/1346-8138.12613. PMID 25201325.
  10. Szatkowski J, Schwartz RA (2015). "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP): A review and update". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 73 (5): 843–8. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2015.07.017. PMID 26354880.
  11. Schmid S, Kuechler PC, Britschgi M, Steiner UC, Yawalkar N, Limat A, Baltensperger K, Braathen L, Pichler WJ (2002). "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: role of cytotoxic T cells in pustule formation". Am. J. Pathol. 161 (6): 2079–86. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64486-0. PMC 1850901. PMID 12466124.
  12. Ankad BS, Beergouder SL (2016). "Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective". Dermatol Pract Concept. 6 (2): 9–15. doi:10.5826/dpc.0602a03. PMC 4866621. PMID 27222766.
  13. Shengyuan L, Songpo Y, Wen W, Wenjing T, Haitao Z, Binyou W (2009). "Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus: a reciprocal association determined by a meta-analysis". Arch Dermatol. 145 (9): 1040–7. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2009.200. PMID 19770446.
  14. Lutz ME, Daoud MS, McEvoy MT, Gibson LE (1998). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis: a clinical study of ten patients". Cutis. 61 (4): 203–8. PMID 9564592.
  15. Kasha EE, Epinette WW (1988). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease) in association with a monoclonal IgA gammopathy: a report and review of the literature". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 19 (5 Pt 1): 854–8. PMID 3056995.
  16. Delaporte E, Colombel JF, Nguyen-Mailfer C, Piette F, Cortot A, Bergoend H (1992). "Subcorneal pustular dermatosis in a patient with Crohn's disease". Acta Derm. Venereol. 72 (4): 301–2. PMID 1357895.
  17. Sauder MB, Glassman SJ (2013). "Palmoplantar subcorneal pustular dermatosis following adalimumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis". Int. J. Dermatol. 52 (5): 624–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05707.x. PMID 23489057.
  18. Lambert WC, Everett MA (1981). "The nosology of parapsoriasis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 5 (4): 373–95. PMID 7026622.
  19. Väkevä L, Sarna S, Vaalasti A, Pukkala E, Kariniemi AL, Ranki A (2005). "A retrospective study of the probability of the evolution of parapsoriasis en plaques into mycosis fungoides". Acta Derm. Venereol. 85 (4): 318–23. doi:10.1080/00015550510030087. PMID 16191852.
  20. Janniger CK, Schwartz RA, Szepietowski JC, Reich A (2005). "Intertrigo and common secondary skin infections". Am Fam Physician. 72 (5): 833–8. PMID 16156342.
  21. Satter EK, High WA (2008). "Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a review of the current recommendations of the Histiocyte Society". Pediatr Dermatol. 25 (3): 291–5. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2008.00669.x. PMID 18577030.
  22. Stull MA, Kransdorf MJ, Devaney KO (1992). "Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone". Radiographics. 12 (4): 801–23. doi:10.1148/radiographics.12.4.1636041. PMID 1636041.
  23. Sholl LM, Hornick JL, Pinkus JL, Pinkus GS, Padera RF (2007). "Immunohistochemical analysis of langerin in langerhans cell histiocytosis and pulmonary inflammatory and infectious diseases". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 31 (6): 947–52. doi:10.1097/01.pas.0000249443.82971.bb. PMID 17527085.
  24. Grois N, Pötschger U, Prosch H, Minkov M, Arico M, Braier J, Henter JI, Janka-Schaub G, Ladisch S, Ritter J, Steiner M, Unger E, Gadner H (2006). "Risk factors for diabetes insipidus in langerhans cell histiocytosis". Pediatr Blood Cancer. 46 (2): 228–33. doi:10.1002/pbc.20425. PMID 16047354.
  25. Al Hasan M, Fitzgerald SM, Saoudian M, Krishnaswamy G (2004). "Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications". Clin Mol Allergy. 2 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-2-5. PMC 419368. PMID 15050029.
  26. Schwartz RA, Janusz CA, Janniger CK (2006). "Seborrheic dermatitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician. 74 (1): 125–30. PMID 16848386.
  27. Misery L, Touboul S, Vinçot C, Dutray S, Rolland-Jacob G, Consoli SG, Farcet Y, Feton-Danou N, Cardinaud F, Callot V, De La Chapelle C, Pomey-Rey D, Consoli SM (2007). "[Stress and seborrheic dermatitis]". Ann Dermatol Venereol (in French). 134 (11): 833–7. PMID 18033062.

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