Thymoma future or investigational therapies

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amr Marawan, M.D. [2]

Overview

Due to the advancement in understanding the molecular biology of the disease, there is an increased number of targeted therapies being tested in clinical trials, but the results have so far been disappointing.

Targeted Therapy

  • KIT pathway
  • It is overexpressed by immunohistochemistry in 2% of thymomas and in 79% of thymic carcinomas. Imatinib and nilotinib are been tried in several clinical trials.[1]
  • Epidermal growth factor pathway
  • It is overexpressed by immunohistochemistry in 70% of thymomas and in 53%of thymic carcinomas. Cetuximab, erlotinib, gefitinib are being used in different clinical trials.[2]
  • IGF-1R pathway
  • Expression of IGF-1R was found in 4% of thymomas and in 37% of thymic carcinomas. Figitumumab and cixutumumab have been tried in different clinical trials.[3]

References

  1. Ströbel, P.; Hartmann, M.; Jakob, A.; Mikesch, K.; Brink, I.; Dirnhofer, S.; Marx, A. (2004). "Thymic carcinoma with overexpression of mutated KIT and the response to imatinib". N Engl J Med. 350 (25): 2625–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM200406173502523. PMID 15201427. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Farina, G.; Garassino, MC.; Gambacorta, M.; La Verde, N.; Gherardi, G.; Scanni, A. (2007). "Response of thymoma to cetuximab". Lancet Oncol. 8 (5): 449–50. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(07)70141-9. PMID 17466903. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Kelly, RJ.; Petrini, I.; Rajan, A.; Wang, Y.; Giaccone, G. (2011). "Thymic malignancies: from clinical management to targeted therapies". J Clin Oncol. 29 (36): 4820–7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.36.0487. PMID 22105817. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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