Sphincter ani externus muscle

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Sphincter ani externus muscle
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Coronal section through the anal canal. B. Cavity of urinary bladder V.D. Ductus deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second part of rectum. A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Sphincter ani internus. E.S. Sphinear ani externus.
Latin musculus sphincter ani externus
Gray's subject #120 425
Origin:
Insertion:
Artery:
Nerve: branch from the fourth sacral and twigs from the inferior hemorrhoidal branch of the pudendal nerve
Action: keep the anal canal and orifice closed
Dorlands/Elsevier m_22/12550801

The Sphincter ani externus (external anal sphincter) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the integument surrounding the margin of the anus.

It measures about 8 to 10 cm in length, from its anterior to its posterior extremity, and is about 2.5 cm broad opposite the anus.

It consists of two strata, superficial and deep.

  • The deeper portion forms a complete sphincter to the anal canal. Its fibers surround the canal, closely applied to the Sphincter ani internus, and in front blend with the other muscles at the central point of the perineum.

In a considerable proportion of cases the fibers decussate in front of the anus, and are continuous with the Transversi perinæi superficiales.

Posteriorly, they are not attached to the coccyx, but are continuous with those of the opposite side behind the anal canal.

The upper edge of the muscle is ill-defined, since fibers are given off from it to join the Levator ani.

Actions

The action of this muscle is peculiar.

(1) It is, like other muscles, always in a state of tonic contraction, and having no antagonistic muscle it keeps the anal canal and orifice closed.

(2) It can be put into a condition of greater contraction under the influence of the will, so as more firmly to occlude the anal aperture, in expiratory efforts unconnected with defecation.

(3) Taking its fixed point at the coccyx, it helps to fix the central point of the perineum, so that the Bulbocavernosus may act from this fixed point.

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External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.


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