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chf

Organ System Disease Symptoms Signs Laboratory findings Diagnostic modality Management
Cardiac HFpEF Exertional dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, edema Elevated JVP, fine crackles, edema Increased BNP Echocardiography (normal EF) Control of volume overload and hypertension,

treatment of underlying condition (obesity, AF, coronary artery disease, anemia)

HFrEF Exertional dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, edema Elevated JVP, fine crackles, edema Increased BNP Echocardiography (reduced EF) Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, beta blockers, nitrates
Pericardial disease Exercise intolerance, dyspnea, fatigue Elevated JVP, pericardial knock, kussmaul's sign, pulsus paradoxus - Echocardiography, ECG Diuretics, pericardiectomy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dyspnea, chest pain, palpitation, lightheadedness Systolic murmur - Echocardiography, ECG Beta blockers, verapamil
Valvular disease (MR, TR) Edema, fatigue, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, lightheadedness Cardiac murmur - Echocardiography, ECG Valve repair or replacement, diuretics, beta blockers
Arrhythmia Palpitation, lightheadedness, chest tightness Tachycardia, abnormal pulse - Echocardiography, ECG, holter monitoring Pharmacological cardioversion (anti arrhythmics), electrical cardioversion, ablation
Pulmonary Chronic airway disease Cough, dyspnea, chest pain, exercise intolerance Tachypnea, respiratory distress, cyanosis, edema, rhonchi and crackles Hypoxemia, hypercapnea, polycythemia, PFT, chest imaging Bronchodilators, corticosteroids, anticholinergics
Interstitial lung diseaee Exercise intolerance, cough Crackles, clubbing, cyanosis Hypoxemia PFT, Chest imaging, lung biopsy Corticosteroids, bronchodilators
Pulmonary hypertension Dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain, syncope, palpitation Edema, clubbing, elevated JVP, TR murmur Elevated BNP, elevated d-dimer Echocardiography, cardiac cathaterization Diuretics, calcium channel blockers, endothelin receptor antagonist, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor
Sleep apnea Snoring, somnolence, headache, fatigue, irritability tachypnea, hypertension, tachycardia Hypoxemia, polycythemia Polysomnography Weight reduction, CPAP
High output status Anemia Palpitation, lightheadedness, fatigue Cheilosis, delayed capillary refill Decreased Hb and HCT CBC, Iron study, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy Iron replacement, nutritional support
Thyrotoxicosis Palpitation, sweating, weight loss Proptosis, tachycardia Decreased TSH, increased T3,T4 Thyroid function test Thyrostatics, beta blockers, ablation
Others Liver disease Fatigue, edema, jaundice Ascites, palmar erythema, gynecomastia Increased AST and ALT, decreased albumin, increased Br Liver function test, Liver biopsy Diuretics, treatment of underlying disease
Chronic kidney disease Fatigue, anorexia, nausea, edema, decreased exercise tolerance Edema, hypertension, crackles Increased BUN and Cr BUN, Cr Control of blood pressure, anemia, dialysis, kidney transplant

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