Sandbox:Mental retardation causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Causes

Common Causes

Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and Fragile X syndrome are the three most common inborn causes. However, doctors have found many other causes. The most common are:

  • Genetic conditions. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. Examples of genetic conditions include Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13del), Mowat-Wilson syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Rett syndrome, Sanfilippo syndrome, and phenylketonuria (PKU).
  • Problems during pregnancy. Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop inside the mother properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus's cells divide as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with mental disability.
  • Problems at birth. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.
  • Health problems. Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability. It can also be caused by not getting enough medical care, or by being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury.
  • Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable cause of mental disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. More common than full-fledged cretinism, as retardation caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Certain areas of the world due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction are severely affected. India is the most outstanding, with 500 million suffering from deficiency, 54 million from goiter, and 2 million from cretinism. Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have begun taking action, while Russia has not. [1]
  • Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia. [2]
  • The use of forceps during birth can lead to mental retardation in an otherwise normal child. They can fracture the skull and cause brain damage.
  • Institutionalisation at a young age can cause mental retardation in normal children.
  • Sensory deprivation in the form of severe environmental restrictions (such as being locked in a basement or under a staircase), prolonged isolation, or severe atypical parent-child interactions.
  • Psycho-social disadvantage. Contributing factors are lack of reading material, use of a language not common in that community, poor diet, poor health practices, and poor housing.

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Angiokeratoma , Aortic supravalvular stenosis , Arachnodactyly , Cardiocranial syndrome , Congenital heart disease
Chemical/Poisoning Copper poisoning
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Congenital hypoparathyroidism, Congenital hypothyroidism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic 10q partial trisomy, 11q partial trisomy , 14q+ syndrome, 17- beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase x deficiency, 18p minus syndrome , 1q deletion , 22q13 deletion syndrome, 2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria , 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency, 2p21 deletion syndrome , 2q deletion , 3c syndrome , 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa hydrolase deficiency, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 3, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 4, 3q deletion , 46,xx chromosome 7 deletion p13, 47,xxx aneuploidy, 47,xxx syndrome, 47,xyy syndrome, 48,xxxy aneuploidy, 48,xxxy syndrome, 49,xxxxx syndrome, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic aciduria , 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency , Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria , Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy , Alpha thalassaemia x-linked mental retardation syndrome, Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency, Atp6v0a2-related cutis laxa, Atr-x syndrome , Autism, Battaglia neri syndrome , Bbb syndrome, x-linked , Carbonic anhydrase type 2 deficiency, Carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, Chondrodysplasia, Chromosome 1, 1p36 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1, deletion q21 q25 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p22 p13 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p31 p22 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p32 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1q4 , Chromosome 1, proximal deletion , Chromosome 1, pter-p36 , Chromosome 1, trisomy 1q32 qter , Chromosome 1, trisomy 1q42 qter , Chromosome 1, uniparental disomy 1q12 q21 , Chromosome 10 ring syndrome , Chromosome 10, monosomy 10p , Chromosome 10p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 10q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 11, deletion 11p , Chromosome 11, partial monosomy 11q , Chromosome 11, partial trisomy 11q , Chromosome 11p, partial deletion , Chromosome 11q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 11q partial deletion , Chromosome 12 ring syndrome , Chromosome 12 trisomy , Chromosome 12, isochromosome 12p mosaic, Chromosome 12, trisomy 12q , Chromosome 12p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 12p deletion , Chromosome 12p partial deletion , Chromosome 12p tetrasomy syndrome , Chromosome 12p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 12q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 13 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 13, partial monosomy 13q , Chromosome 13p duplication , Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 13q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 14 deletion - , Chromosome 14 ring syndrome, Chromosome 14 ring -, Chromosome 14 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 14 uniparental disomy syndrome , Chromosome 14, trisomy mosaic , Chromosome 14q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 14q, proximal duplication , Chromosome 14q, terminal deletion , Chromosome 14q, terminal duplication , Chromosome 15 inverted duplication , Chromosome 15 ring , Chromosome 15 trisomy , Chromosome 15, distal trisomy 15q , Chromosome 15q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 15q tetrasomy syndrome , Chromosome 15q triplication syndrome , Chromosome 15q, partial deletion , Chromosome 15q, tetrasomy , Chromosome 15q, trisomy , Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome , Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome , Chromosome 16p, partial duplication , Chromosome 16p11.2 duplication syndrome, Chromosome 16q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 16q, partial deletion, Chromosome 17 deletion , Chromosome 17 ring , Chromosome 17 trisomy mosaicism , Chromosome 17 trisomy , Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24 , Chromosome 17, trisomy 17p11.2 , Chromosome 17p, partial deletion , Chromosome 17p, partial duplication , Chromosome 17q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 17q, partial duplication , Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome, Chromosome 17q21.31 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 18 ring , Chromosome 18 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 18, deletion 18q23 , Chromosome 18, monosomy 18p , Chromosome 18, tetrasomy 18p , Chromosome 18, trisomy 18q , Chromosome 18p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18p minus syndrome , Chromosome 18p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18q syndrome , Chromosome 18q, partial deletion, Chromosome 19 ring syndrome, Chromosome 19q, partial duplication , Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 1q deletion, Chromosome 1q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2p22 , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2pter p24 , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q24, Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q37 , Chromosome 2, trisomy 2p , Chromosome 2, trisomy 2q , Chromosome 20 ring syndrome, Chromosome 20 ring , Chromosome 20p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 21 monosomy , Chromosome 21 ring syndrome, Chromosome 21, tetrasomy 21q , Chromosome 21q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 21q, partial deletion , Chromosome 22 monosomy syndrome , Chromosome 22 ring syndrome, Chromosome 22 suprenumerary marker , Chromosome 22 trisomy mosaic, Chromosome 22q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 22q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 3, monosomy 3p25 , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3p , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3q13 2 q25 , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3q2 , Chromosome 3p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome, Chromosome 4 ring syndrome, Chromosome 4 short arm deletion , Chromosome 4, monosomy 4p14 p16, Chromosome 4, monosomy 4q , Chromosome 4, monosomy distal 4q , Chromosome 4, partial trisomy distal 4q , Chromosome 4, trisomy 4q , Chromosome 4p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 4q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 5, trisomy 5p , Chromosome 5, trisomy 5pter p13 3 , Chromosome 5, trisomy 5q , Chromosome 5p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 5p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 5q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 5q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 6 ring syndrome , Chromosome 6 ring syndrome, Chromosome 6 ring , Chromosome 6, monosomy 6p23, Chromosome 6, monosomy 6q , Chromosome 6, monosomy 6q1 , Chromosome 6, partial trisomy 6q , Chromosome 6, trisomy 6p , Chromosome 6, trisomy 6q, Chromosome 6p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 6q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 6q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 7 ring syndrome , Chromosome 7, monosomy 7q21 , Chromosome 7, monosomy 7q3 , Chromosome 7, partial deletion of short arm , Chromosome 7, partial monosomy 7p , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7p , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7p13 p12 2 , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7q , Chromosome 7p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 7p duplication syndrome, Chromosome 7q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 7q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8 deletion , Chromosome 8 recombinant syndrome , Chromosome 8 recombinant syndrome, Chromosome 8 ring , Chromosome 8 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 8 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 8, monosomy 8p , Chromosome 8, monosomy 8p2 , Chromosome 8, monosomy 8q , Chromosome 8, mosaic trisomy , Chromosome 8, partial trisomy , Chromosome 8, trisomy 8p , Chromosome 8, trisomy 8q , Chromosome 8, trisomy, Chromosome 8p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8p inverted duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8p mosaic tetrasomy , Chromosome 8q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 9 ring syndrome, Chromosome 9 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 9, monosomy 9p , Chromosome 9, partial monosomy 9p , Chromosome 9, partial trisomy 9p , Chromosome 9, tetrasomy 9p , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9p , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9p, Chromosome 9, trisomy 9q , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9q32 , Chromosome 9, trisomy, Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 9p duplication syndrome, Chromosome 9p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 9q duplication , Chromosome diploid-triploid mosaicism syndrome, Chromosome disorders, Chromosome xp11.23-p11.22 duplication syndrome , Chronic alcoholism , Coenzyme q10 deficiency, Complete trisomy 18 syndrome, Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome , Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1a, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1c, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1k, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2a, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type x , Congenital disorders of glycosylation , Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2, Congenital heart disease , Congenital hypoparathyroidism, Congenital hypothyroidism, Congenital muscular dystrophy, Congenital myotonic dystrophy, Congenital toxoplasmosis
Hematologic Adrenoleukodystrophy , Anophthalmia
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Chickenpox , Congenital toxoplasmosis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic 10q partial trisomy, 11q partial trisomy , 14q+ syndrome, 17- beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase x deficiency, 18p minus syndrome , 1q deletion , 22q13 deletion syndrome, 2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria , 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency, 2p21 deletion syndrome , 2q deletion , 3c syndrome , 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa hydrolase deficiency, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 3, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 4, 3q deletion , 46,xx chromosome 7 deletion p13, 47,xxx aneuploidy, 47,xxx syndrome, 47,xyy syndrome, 48,xxxy aneuploidy, 48,xxxy syndrome, 49,xxxxx syndrome, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic aciduria , 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency , Aarskog syndrome , Acanthocytosis , Acidemia, Acrocallosal syndrome , Acrocephalopolydactyly ii , Acrocephaly , Acrofacial dysostosis , Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis syndrome , Acromesomelic dysplasia , Acropectorovertebral dysplasia , Acrosphenosyndactylia , Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, Adrenoleukodystrophy , Agenesis of the corpus callosum , Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria , Aicardi's syndrome, Akesson syndrome, Al gazali aziz salem syndrome , Al gazali sabrinathan nair syndrome , Albers-schonberg disease , Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy , Aldred syndrome , Alexander disease, Allan-herndon-dudley syndrome, Alopecia mental retardation syndrome , Alpers syndrome , Alpha thalassaemia x-linked mental retardation syndrome, Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency, Alpha-l-iduronidase deficiency, Alpha-mannosidase deficiency, Alpha-thalassemia, Alport syndrome , Aminoacidopathies , Aminomethyltransferase deficiency, Ampola syndrome , Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva , Anauxetic dysplasia , Andermann syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Angiokeratoma , Aniridia cerebellar ataxia mental deficiency , Aniridia iii , Aniridia ptosis , Anophthalmia , Ansell-bywaters-elderking syndrome , Aortic supravalvular stenosis , Apert syndrome, Arachnodactyly , Arakawa syndrome 1, Arena syndrome , Arginase deficiency, Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase deficiency , Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, Arginosuccinate synthetase deficiency, Arginosuccinic aciduria, Arima syndrome, Arkless-graham syndrome, Arnold-chiari malformation type 2 , Arnold-chiari malformation type 4 , Arthrogryposis , Arthrogryposis, Aspartoacylase deficiency, Aspartylglucosaminidase deficiency, Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy , Ataxia tapetoretinal degeneration , Athabaskan brain stem dysgenesis, Atkin-flaitz-patil syndrome, Atp6v0a2-related cutis laxa, Atr16 , Atrichia , Atr-x syndrome , Atypical pyridoxine-dependent seizures , Aughton syndrome , Aural atresia , Auralcephalosyndactyly , Autism, Axenfeld-rieger syndrome , Baller-gerold syndrome, Bamforth syndrome , Bangstad syndrome , Baraitser burn fixen syndrome , Baraitser-rodeck-garner syndrome , Baraitser-winter syndrome, Bardet-biedl syndrome, Bartsocas papa syndrome , Bartter syndrome, Battaglia neri syndrome , Bbb syndrome, x-linked , Bd syndrome , Behr syndrome, Bellini-chiumello-rinoldi syndrome , Ben-ari-shuper-mimouni syndrome , Benjamin syndrome , Bentham-driessen-hanveld syndrome , Berardinelli lipodystrophy syndrome, Berlin breakage syndrome, Bertini syndrome, Beta-mannosidase deficiency, Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency, Beuren-williams syndrome, Biemond syndrome type 2, Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, Bird-headed dwarfism, Birth hypoxia, Blepharonasofacial syndrome, Blepharophimosis syndrome, Bobble-head doll syndrome , Bod syndrome, Bone dysplasia , Bonnemann-meinecke-reich syndrome , Borjeson-forssman-lehmann syndrome, Bork-stender-schmidt syndrome , Boscherini-galasso-manca-bitti syndrome , Bosviel syndrome , Brachioskeletogenital syndrome , Brachycephaly , Brachydactyly, Braddock jones superneau syndrome, Brain trauma, Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome , Branchio-skeleto-genital syndrome, Bresheck syndrome, Bruch-de lange syndrome, Bullous dystrophy, Buntinx-lormans-martin syndrome, Buttiens-fryns syndrome, C syndrome, Cach syndrome , Cahmr syndrome , Camera-marugo-cohen syndrome, Camfak syndrome, Camptodactyly syndrome, Canavan disease, Cantu sanchez-corona fragoso syndrome , Cantu sanchez-corona garcia-cruz syndrome , Cantu syndrome , Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency, Carbamoylphosphate synthetase deficiency, Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1a, Carbon baby syndrome , Carbonic anhydrase type 2 deficiency, Carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, Cardiocranial syndrome , Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Carnosinaemia, Caseinolytic peptidase b deficiency, Cat eye syndrome , Cataract deafness hypogonadism , Cataract dental syndrome , Caudal appendage , Cayler syndrome , Ccfdn , Cdg syndrome type 1a , Cephalic disorders, Cerebellar ataxia , Cerebellar hypoplasia , Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, Cerebellum agenesis , Cerebral palsy, Cerebro oculo genital syndrome, Cerebro oculo skeleto renal syndrome , Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome, Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia, Cerebro-oculo-nasal syndrome, Cerebrorenodigital syndrome, Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosus , Ceroid lipofuscinosis , Chanarin-dorfman disease, Charcot-marie-tooth-hoffmann syndrome, x-linked type 2, Charcot-marie-tooth-hoffmann syndrome, Charge syndrome, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Chitayat-moore-del bigio syndrome , Chitty hall baraitser syndrome , Chitty-hall-webb syndrome , Cholestanol storage disease, Chondrodysplasia, Chorioretinopathy dominant form , Choroideremia, Christian syndrome 1, Christian-demyer-franken syndrome , Christianson syndrome, Chromosome 1, 1p36 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1, deletion q21 q25 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p22 p13 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p31 p22 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p32 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p34 p32 , Chromosome 1, monosomy 1q25 q32, Chromosome 1, monosomy 1q4 , Chromosome 1, proximal deletion , Chromosome 1, pter-p36 , Chromosome 1, trisomy 1q32 qter , Chromosome 1, trisomy 1q42 qter , Chromosome 1, uniparental disomy 1q12 q21 , Chromosome 10 ring syndrome , Chromosome 10, monosomy 10p , Chromosome 10p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 10q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 11, deletion 11p , Chromosome 11, partial monosomy 11q , Chromosome 11, partial trisomy 11q , Chromosome 11p, partial deletion , Chromosome 11q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 11q partial deletion , Chromosome 12 ring syndrome , Chromosome 12 trisomy , Chromosome 12, isochromosome 12p mosaic, Chromosome 12, trisomy 12q , Chromosome 12p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 12p deletion , Chromosome 12p partial deletion , Chromosome 12p tetrasomy syndrome , Chromosome 12p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 12q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 13 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 13, partial monosomy 13q , Chromosome 13p duplication , Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 13q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 14 deletion - , Chromosome 14 ring syndrome, Chromosome 14 ring -, Chromosome 14 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 14 uniparental disomy syndrome , Chromosome 14, trisomy mosaic , Chromosome 14q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 14q, proximal duplication , Chromosome 14q, terminal deletion , Chromosome 14q, terminal duplication , Chromosome 15 inverted duplication , Chromosome 15 ring , Chromosome 15 trisomy , Chromosome 15, distal trisomy 15q , Chromosome 15q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 15q tetrasomy syndrome , Chromosome 15q triplication syndrome , Chromosome 15q, deletion , Chromosome 15q, partial deletion , Chromosome 15q, tetrasomy , Chromosome 15q, trisomy , Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome , Chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, Chromosome 15q26-qter deletion syndrome , Chromosome 16p, partial duplication , Chromosome 16p11.2 duplication syndrome, Chromosome 16q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 16q, partial deletion, Chromosome 17 deletion , Chromosome 17 ring , Chromosome 17 trisomy mosaicism , Chromosome 17 trisomy , Chromosome 17, deletion 17q23 q24 , Chromosome 17, trisomy 17p11.2 , Chromosome 17p, partial deletion , Chromosome 17p, partial duplication , Chromosome 17q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 17q, partial duplication , Chromosome 17q12 duplication syndrome, Chromosome 17q21.31 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 18 ring , Chromosome 18 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 18, deletion 18q23 , Chromosome 18, monosomy 18p , Chromosome 18, tetrasomy 18p , Chromosome 18, trisomy 18q , Chromosome 18p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18p minus syndrome , Chromosome 18p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 18q syndrome , Chromosome 18q, partial deletion, Chromosome 19 ring syndrome, Chromosome 19q, partial duplication , Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 1p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 1q deletion, Chromosome 1q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2p22 , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2pter p24 , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q , Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q24, Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q37 , Chromosome 2, trisomy 2p , Chromosome 2, trisomy 2q , Chromosome 20 ring syndrome, Chromosome 20 ring , Chromosome 20p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 21 monosomy , Chromosome 21 ring syndrome, Chromosome 21, tetrasomy 21q , Chromosome 21q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 21q, partial deletion , Chromosome 22 monosomy syndrome , Chromosome 22 ring syndrome, Chromosome 22 suprenumerary marker , Chromosome 22 trisomy mosaic, Chromosome 22q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 22q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 2p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome , Chromosome 2q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome, Chromosome 3, monosomy 3p25 , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3p , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3q13 2 q25 , Chromosome 3, trisomy 3q2 , Chromosome 3p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome, Chromosome 4 ring syndrome, Chromosome 4 short arm deletion , Chromosome 4, monosomy 4p14 p16, Chromosome 4, monosomy 4q , Chromosome 4, monosomy distal 4q , Chromosome 4, partial trisomy distal 4q , Chromosome 4, trisomy 4q , Chromosome 4p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 4q duplication syndrome, Chromosome 5, trisomy 5p , Chromosome 5, trisomy 5pter p13 3 , Chromosome 5, trisomy 5q , Chromosome 5p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 5p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 5q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 5q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 6 ring syndrome , Chromosome 6 ring syndrome, Chromosome 6 ring , Chromosome 6, monosomy 6p23, Chromosome 6, monosomy 6q , Chromosome 6, monosomy 6q1 , Chromosome 6, partial trisomy 6q , Chromosome 6, trisomy 6p , Chromosome 6, trisomy 6q, Chromosome 6p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 6q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 6q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 7 ring syndrome , Chromosome 7, monosomy 7q21 , Chromosome 7, monosomy 7q3 , Chromosome 7, partial deletion of short arm , Chromosome 7, partial monosomy 7p , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7p , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7p13 p12 2 , Chromosome 7, trisomy 7q , Chromosome 7p deletion syndrome , Chromosome 7p duplication syndrome, Chromosome 7q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 7q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8 deletion , Chromosome 8 recombinant syndrome , Chromosome 8 recombinant syndrome, Chromosome 8 ring , Chromosome 8 trisomy syndrome , Chromosome 8 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 8, monosomy 8p , Chromosome 8, monosomy 8p2 , Chromosome 8, monosomy 8q , Chromosome 8, mosaic trisomy , Chromosome 8, partial trisomy , Chromosome 8, trisomy 8p , Chromosome 8, trisomy 8q , Chromosome 8, trisomy, Chromosome 8p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 8p duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8p inverted duplication syndrome , Chromosome 8p mosaic tetrasomy , Chromosome 8q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 8q duplication syndrome , Chromosome 9 ring syndrome, Chromosome 9 trisomy syndrome, Chromosome 9, monosomy 9p , Chromosome 9, partial monosomy 9p , Chromosome 9, partial trisomy 9p , Chromosome 9, tetrasomy 9p , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9p , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9p, Chromosome 9, trisomy 9q , Chromosome 9, trisomy 9q32 , Chromosome 9, trisomy, Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 9p duplication syndrome, Chromosome 9p tetrasomy syndrome, Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 9q deletion syndrome, Chromosome 9q duplication , Chromosome diploid-triploid mosaicism syndrome, Chromosome disorders, Chromosome xp11.23-p11.22 duplication syndrome , Chylomicron retention disease, Cinca syndrome, Ck syndrome, Clark-baraitser syndrome , Classic galactosemia , Classical pyridoxine-dependent seizures , C-like syndrome, Coach syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, Codas syndrome, Coenzyme q10 deficiency, Coffin-lowry syndrome, Coffin-siris syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Coleman randall syndrome , Collins-sakati syndrome , Coloboma chorioretinal cerebellar vermis aplasia , Colobomatous microphthalmia , Colpocephaly , Complete trisomy 18 syndrome, Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome , Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1a, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1c, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1k, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2a, Congenital disorder of glycosylation type x , Congenital disorders of glycosylation , Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2, Congenital muscular dystrophy, Congenital myotonic dystrophy, Copper poisoning, Corneal anesthesia deafness intellectual deficit , Corneal anesthesia deafness mental retardation, Corneal cerebellar syndrome ,
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic Childbirth injury
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic Colobomatous microphthalmia
Overdose/Toxicity Chronic alcoholism
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Brain trauma, Child abuse, Childbirth injury
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. "In Raising the World’s I.Q., the Secret’s in the Salt", article by Donald G. McNeil, Jr., December 16, 2006, New York Times
  2. "Malnutrition Is Cheating Its Survivors, and Africa’s Future" article in the New York Times by Michael Wines, December 28, 2006

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