Respiratory acidosis pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vamsikrishna Gunnam M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

Respiratory acidosis is an result of imbalance between acid-base due to alveolar hypoventilation.The normal range is 35-45 mm Hg for PaCO2.Increase in the production of carbon dioxide due to  failure of ventilation results in sudden increase of the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above the normal range. Alveolar hypoventilation is one of the cause to increased PaCO2 which is is called hypercapnia. Hypercapnia and respiration acidosis occur while impairment in air flow happens and the elimination of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is much less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues.Respiratory acidosis encountered in the emergency department and inpatient patients, as well as in intensive care units and postoperative patients.

Pathophysiology

Metabolism

Alveolar ventilation

Physiologic compensation[3][4]

Acute cellular compensatory stage

Chronic renal compensatory stage

  • The predicted alternate in serum bicarbonate concentration in respiratory acidosis can be estimated as follows:

Electrolytes[6]

References

  1. Epstein SK, Singh N (2001). "Respiratory acidosis". Respir Care. 46 (4): 366–83. PMID 11262556.
  2. Epstein SK, Singh N (2001). "Respiratory acidosis". Respir Care. 46 (4): 366–83. PMID 11262556.
  3. Bruno CM, Valenti M (2012). "Acid-base disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pathophysiological review". J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012: 915150. doi:10.1155/2012/915150. PMC 3303884. PMID 22500110.
  4. Bruno, Cosimo Marcello; Valenti, Maria (2012). "Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2012: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2012/915150. ISSN 1110-7243.
  5. Bruno, Cosimo Marcello; Valenti, Maria (2012). "Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2012: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2012/915150. ISSN 1110-7243.
  6. Yee AH, Rabinstein AA (February 2010). "Neurologic presentations of acid-base imbalance, electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrine emergencies". Neurol Clin. 28 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2009.09.002. PMID 19932372.

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