Respiratory acidosis natural history, complications and prognosis
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Respiratory acidosis is an result of imbalance between acid-base due to alveolar hypoventilation.The normal range is 35-45 mm Hg for PaCO2.Increase in the production of carbon dioxide due to failure of ventilation results in sudden increase of the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above the normal range. Alveolar hypoventilation is one of the cause to increased PaCO2 which is is called hypercapnia.Hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis occur while impairment in air flow happens and the elimination of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is much less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues.Respiratory acidosis encountered in the emergency department and inpatient patients, as well as in intensive care units and postoperative patients.
Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis
- Respiration acidosis(primary hypercapnia), is the acid-base ailment that consequences from an increase in carbon dioxide in the body.
- Acute respiratory acidosis happens with respiratory failure, which could result from any unexpected respiratory parenchymal, airways (eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ), pleural, chest wall, neuromuscular eg, spinal cord damage, or central nervous system disorders.
- Chronic respiratory acidosis can result from several procedures and is typified by way of a sustained increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, ensuing in renal adaptation, and an extra marked increase in plasma bicarbonate.
- Different mechanisms of respiratory acidosis include increased carbon dioxide production, alveolar hypoventilation, abnormal breathing drive, abnormalities of the chest wall and respiratory muscles.
- Despite the fact that the symptoms, signs, results of respiratory acidosis are numerous, the major effects are seen on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems which are life threating.
Common complications of respiratory acidosis include:
Depending upon the level and rate of CO2 accumulation in arterial blood the complications of respiratory acidosis are pulmonary, neurologic and cardiovascular complications like
- Daytime somnolence
- Alterations in sensorium like delirium and paranoia