Inheritance and function
Normal male mammals have two copies of these genes: one in the pseudoautosomal region of their Y chromosome, the other in the corresponding portion of their X chromosome. Normal females also possess two copies of pseudoautosomal genes, as each of their two X chromosomes contains a pseudoautosomal region. So males can inherit an allele originally present on the X chromosome of their father and females can inherit an allele originally present on the Y chromosome of their father.
Pairing (synapsis) of the X and Y chromosomes and crossing over (recombination) between their pseudoautosomal regions appear to be necessary for the normal progression of male meiosis. Thus, those cells in which X-Y recombination does not occur will fail to complete meiosis. Structural and/or genetic dissimilarity (due to hybridization or mutation) between the pseudoautosomal regions of the X and Y chromosomes can disrupt pairing and recombination, and consequently cause male infertility.
The SHOX gene in the PAR1 region is the only gene that has so far been shown to be associated with disorders in humans, but all pseudoautosomal genes escape X-inactivation and are therefore candidates for having gene dosage effects in sex chromosome aneuploidy conditions (45,X, 47,XXX, 47,XXY, 47,XYY, etc.).
- Blaschke RJ, Rappold G (2006). The pseudoautosomal regions, SHOX and disease. Curr Opin Genet Dev. Jun; 16:233-9. PMID 16650979