Protic solvent

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Overview

In chemistry a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group. More generally, any molecular solvent which contains dissociable H+, such as hydrogen fluoride, is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents can donate an H+ (proton). Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen.

Common characteristics of protic solvents:

Examples are water, methanol, ethanol, formic acid, hydrogen fluoride and ammonia.

Polar aprotic solvents are solvents that share ion dissolving power with protic solvents but lack an acidic hydrogen. These solvents generally have high dielectric constants and high polarity.

Examples are dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, dioxane and hexamethylphosphorotriamide, tetrahydrofuran.

Polar protic solvents are favorable for SN1 reactions, while polar aprotic solvents are favorable for SN2 reactions. Apart from solvent effects, polar aprotic solvents may also be essential for reactions which use strong bases, such as reactions involving Grignard reagents or n-butyllithium. If a protic solvent were to be used, the reagent would be consumed by a side reaction with the solvent.

References

  • Loudon, G. Mark. Organic Chemistry 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 2002. pg 317.

Cost Effectiveness of Protic solvent

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Protic solvent | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Protic solvent at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Protic solventClinical Trials on Protic solvent at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Protic solvent | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Protic solventNICE Guidance on Protic solventNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Protic solventCDC on Protic solvent


| group7 = Textbook Information on Protic solvent | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Protic solvent


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Protic solvent | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Protic solventAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Protic solventAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Protic solventAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Protic solventAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Protic solventAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Protic solventAND (pregnancy)}} Protic solvent in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Protic solvent


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Protic solvent | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Protic solventAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Protic solventAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Protic solvent


| group10 = Newstories on Protic solvent | list10 = Protic solvent in the newsBe alerted to news on Protic solventNews trends on Protic solvent


| group11 = Commentary on Protic solvent | list11 = Blogs on Protic solvent

| group12 = Patient Resources on Protic solvent | list12 = Patient resources on Protic solventDiscussion groups on Protic solventPatient Handouts on Protic solventDirections to Hospitals Treating Protic solventRisk calculators and risk factors for Protic solvent


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Protic solvent | list13 = Symptoms of Protic solventCauses & Risk Factors for Protic solventDiagnostic studies for Protic solventTreatment of Protic solvent

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Protic solvent | list14 = CME Programs on Protic solvent

| group15 = International Resources on Protic solvent | list15 = Protic solvent en EspanolProtic solvent en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Protic solvent | list16 = Protic solvent in the MarketplacePatents on Protic solvent

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Protic solvent | list17 = List of terms related to Protic solvent


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