Protein S

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protein S (alpha)
Symbol PROS1
Alt. Symbols PROS
Entrez 5627
HUGO 9456
OMIM 176880
RefSeq NM_000313
UniProt P07225
Other data
Locus Chr. 3 p11-q11.2

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Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver. In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein C4b.


The best characterized function of Protein S is its role in the anti coagulation pathway, it functions as a cofactor to Protein C in the inactivation of Factors Va and VIIIa. Only the free form has cofactor activity.

Protein S can bind to negatively charged phospholipids via the carboxylated GLA domain. This property allows Protein S to function in the removal of cells which are undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is a form of cell death that is used by the body to remove unwanted or damaged cells from tissues. Cells which are apoptotic (ie. in the process of apoptosis) no longer actively manage the distribution of phospholipids in their outer membrane and hence begin to display negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidyl serine, on the cell surface. In healthy cells, an ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)-dependent enzyme removes these from the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. These negatively charged phospholipids are recognized by phagocytes such as macrophages. Protein S can bind to the negatively charged phospholipids and function as a bridging molecule between the apoptotic cell and the phagocyte. The bridging property of Protein S enhances the phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell, allowing it to be removed 'cleanly' without any symptoms of tissue damage such as inflammation occurring.


Protein S deficiency is a rare blood disorder which can lead to an increased risk of thrombosis.

See also

Cost Effectiveness of Protein S

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Protein S | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Protein S at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Protein SClinical Trials on Protein S at Google

| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Protein S | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Protein SNICE Guidance on Protein SNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Protein SCDC on Protein S

| group7 = Textbook Information on Protein S | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Protein S

| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Protein S | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Protein SAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Protein SAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Protein SAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Protein SAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Protein SAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Protein SAND (pregnancy)}} Protein S in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Protein S

| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Protein S | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Protein SAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Protein SAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Protein S

| group10 = Newstories on Protein S | list10 = Protein S in the newsBe alerted to news on Protein SNews trends on Protein S</small>

| group11 = Commentary on Protein S | list11 = Blogs on Protein S

| group12 = Patient Resources on Protein S | list12 = Patient resources on Protein SDiscussion groups on Protein SPatient Handouts on Protein SDirections to Hospitals Treating Protein SRisk calculators and risk factors for Protein S

| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Protein S | list13 = Symptoms of Protein SCauses & Risk Factors for Protein SDiagnostic studies for Protein STreatment of Protein S

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Protein S | list14 = CME Programs on Protein S

| group15 = International Resources on Protein S | list15 = Protein S en EspanolProtein S en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Protein S | list16 = Protein S in the MarketplacePatents on Protein S

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Protein S | list17 = List of terms related to Protein S

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