Proprotein convertase 2

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

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Location (UCSC)n/an/a
PubMed searchn/an/a
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View/Edit Human
proprotein convertase 2
Identifiers
EC number3.4.21.94
CAS number130960-94-0
Databases
IntEnzIntEnz view
BRENDABRENDA entry
ExPASyNiceZyme view
KEGGKEGG entry
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PRIAMprofile
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene OntologyAmiGO / QuickGO

Proprotein convertase 2 (PC2) also known as prohormone convertase 2 or neuroendocrine convertase 2 (NEC2) is a serine protease and proprotein convertase PC2, like proprotein convertase 1 (PC1), is an enzyme responsible for the first step in the maturation of many neuroendocrine peptides from their precursors, such as the conversion of proinsulin to insulin intermediates. To generate the bioactive form of insulin (and many other peptides), a second step involving the removal of C-terminal basic residues is required; this step is mediated by carboxypeptidases E and/or D. PC2 plays only a minor role in the first step of insulin biosynthesis, but a greater role in the first step of glucagon biosynthesis compared to PC1. PC2 binds to the neuroendocrine protein named 7B2, and if this protein is not present, proPC2 cannot become enzymatically active. 7B2 accomplishes this by preventing the aggregation of proPC2 to inactivatable forms. The C-terminal domain of 7B2 also inhibits PC2 activity until it is cleaved into smaller inactive forms. Thus, 7B2 is both an activator and an inhibitor of PC2. PC2 has been identified in a number of animals, including C. elegans[1].

In humans, proprotein convertase 2 is encoded by the PCSK2 gene.[2] It is related to the bacterial enzyme subtilisin, and altogether there are 9 different subtilisin-like genes in mammals: furin, PACE4, PC4, PC5/6, PC7/8, PCSK9, and SKI1/S1P.

References

  1. Gomez-Saladin, E., Wilson, DL., and Dickerson, IM. 1994. Isolation and in situ localization of a cDNA encoding a Kex2-like prohormone convertase in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cellualr and Molecular Neurobiology 14(1): 9-25
  2. Seidah NG, Mattei MG, Gaspar L, Benjannet S, Mbikay M, Chrétien M (September 1991). "Chromosomal assignments of the genes for neuroendocrine convertase PC1 (NEC1) to human 5q15-21, neuroendocrine convertase PC2 (NEC2) to human 20p11.1-11.2, and furin (mouse 7[D1-E2] region)". Genomics. 11 (1): 103–7. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90106-O. PMID 1765368.

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