Prednisone detailed information

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Prednisone detailed information
Prednisone-2D-skeletal.png
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
  • C
Routes of
administration
Oral, Nasal, Rectal, Injection, IV
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability70%
Metabolismprednisolone (liver)
Elimination half-life1 hour
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
E number{{#property:P628}}
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Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H26O5
Molar mass358.428 g/mol

Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [1] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch. Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally but can be delivered by intramuscular injection and can be used for a great number of different conditions. It has a mainly glucocorticoid effect. Prednisone is a prodrug that is converted by the liver into prednisolone, which is the active drug and also a steroid.

Uses

Prednisone is particularly effective as an immunosuppressant and affects virtually all of the immune system. It can therefore be used in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases (such as severe asthma, severe poison ivy dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's disease), various kidney diseases including nephrotic syndrome, and to prevent and treat rejection in organ transplantation. This medicine may also reduce the sex drive. Prednisone has also been used in the treatment of migraine headaches.

Prednisone tablets are furthermore used in the pharmaceutical industry for the calibration of dissolution testing equipment according to the USP (United States Pharmacopeia).

Usual initial dosage ranges from 20 - 80mg per day (also 1mg / kg in children up to 50mg). Intravenous application may be employed for cerebral inflammation, as in the period attacks caused by multiple sclerosis.

Veterinary uses

Prednisone is the first-line drug and is relatively inexpensive for treating insulinoma, the most common cancer in the ferret.[1]

History

Prednisone was invented in the early 1950s when Arthur Nobile at Schering demonstrated that the side effects of cortisone such as water retention, high blood pressure and muscle weakness could be removed by oxidisation of the drug through exposure to microbes. The drug was introduced by Schering in the mid-1960s.

Dependency

Adrenal suppression occurs if prednisone is taken for longer than 7 days, a condition which means the body is unable to synthesize natural corticosteroids and becomes dependent on the prednisone taken by the patient. For this reason, prednisone should not be stopped abruptly if taken for longer than seven days, rather the dosage must be reduced slowly. This reduction may be over a few days if the course of prednisone was short, but may take weeks or months if the patient has been on long-term treatment. Abrupt withdrawal may lead to an Addisonian crisis, which may be life-threatening. For those on chronic therapy, alternate-day dosing may preserve adrenal function, thereby reducing side effects (see "Dosing Considerations").

Side effects

Short-term side effects, as with all glucocorticoids, include high blood glucose levels, especially in patients who already have diabetes mellitus or are on other medications that increase blood glucose (such as tacrolimus), and mineralocorticoid effects such as fluid retention (although it's worth noting however that the mineralcorticoid effects of prednisone are very minor, this is why it is not used in the management of adrenal insufficiency unless a more potent mineralocorticoid is administered concomitantly). Additional short-term side effects include insomnia, euphoria and rarely mania. Long-term side effects include Cushing's syndrome, weight gain, osteoporosis, glaucoma, type II diabetes mellitus, and depression upon withdrawal.

Major

Minor

External links

de:Prednison it:Prednisone he:פרדניזון nl:Prednison no:Prednisolon sk:Prednizón



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