Postoperative nausea and vomiting

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Postoperative nausea and vomiting

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Editor-in-Chief: Santosh Patel M.D., FRCA [1]

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Overview

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. This equates to about two million people in the United Kingdom annually.

Impact

On average the incidence of nausea or vomiting after general anesthesia ranges between 25 and 30% [Cohen 1994]. Nausea and vomiting can be extremely distressing for patients and is therefore one of their major concerns [Macario 1999]. Vomiting has been associated with major complications such as pulmonary aspiration of gastric content and might endanger surgical outcomes after certain procedures, for example after maxillofacial surgery with wired jaws. Nausea and vomiting can delay discharge and about 1% of patients scheduled for day surgery require unanticipated overnight admission because of uncontrolled postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Management

Because no currently available antiemetic is especially effective by itself, and successful control is often elusive, experts recommend a multimodal approach. Anaesthetic strategies to prevent vomiting include using regional anaesthesia wherever possible and avoiding emetogenic drugs. Pharmacological treatment and prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting is limited by both cost and the adverse effects of drugs. Patients with risk factors probably warrant prophylaxis, whereas a "wait and see" strategy is appropriate for those without risk factors.

Pharmacology

The introduction of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, in the early 1990s was a significant breakthrough. Despite the many studies, however, the evidence base to support rational antiemetic treatment remains patchy. Recent research has led to better understanding of some older drugs and has demonstrated that combinations of drugs are often useful. While the efficacy of droperidol is now clear, metoclopramide, a popular antiemetic for decades, has been found to have no worthwhile efficacy. Some older drugs, such as haloperidol and hyoscine remain inadequately studied.

Emetogenic drugs commonly used in anaesthesia include nitrous oxide, physostigmine and opioids. The intravenous anaesthetic propofol is currently the least emetogenic general anaesthetic.

Risk factors

Postoperative nausea and vomiting results from anaesthesic, surgical, and patients factors. Gynaecological, urological, strabismus correction and middle ear surgery all have a higher risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Patients that are female or who have a history of postoperative nausea and vomiting are at greater risk. Smokers have a decreased risk, but this would never be recommended by any physician. One study found that the increased risk in women was correlated to the phase of their menstrual cycle.

References

  • Cohen MM, Duncan PG, DeBoer DP, Tweed WA. The postoperative interview: assessing risk factors for nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1994;78:7-16.
  • Macario A, Weininger M, Carney S, Kim A. Which clinical anesthesia outcomes are important to avoid? The perspective of patients. Anesth Analg 1999:89(9):652-8
  • Tramèr MR. Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. BMJ 2003;327:762-3. Fulltext. PMID 14525850.
  • Honkavaara P, Lehtinen AM, Hovorka J, Korttila K. Nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy depends upon the phase of the menstrual cycle. Can J Anaesth. 38:876-9. 1991

See also


Cost Effectiveness of Postoperative nausea and vomiting

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Postoperative nausea and vomiting at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Postoperative nausea and vomitingClinical Trials on Postoperative nausea and vomiting at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Postoperative nausea and vomitingNICE Guidance on Postoperative nausea and vomitingNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Postoperative nausea and vomitingCDC on Postoperative nausea and vomiting


| group7 = Textbook Information on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Postoperative nausea and vomiting


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Postoperative nausea and vomitingAND (pregnancy)}} Postoperative nausea and vomiting in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Postoperative nausea and vomiting


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| group10 = Newstories on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list10 = Postoperative nausea and vomiting in the newsBe alerted to news on Postoperative nausea and vomitingNews trends on Postoperative nausea and vomiting


| group11 = Commentary on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list11 = Blogs on Postoperative nausea and vomiting

| group12 = Patient Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list12 = Patient resources on Postoperative nausea and vomitingDiscussion groups on Postoperative nausea and vomitingPatient Handouts on Postoperative nausea and vomitingDirections to Hospitals Treating Postoperative nausea and vomitingRisk calculators and risk factors for Postoperative nausea and vomiting


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list13 = Symptoms of Postoperative nausea and vomitingCauses & Risk Factors for Postoperative nausea and vomitingDiagnostic studies for Postoperative nausea and vomitingTreatment of Postoperative nausea and vomiting

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list14 = CME Programs on Postoperative nausea and vomiting

| group15 = International Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list15 = Postoperative nausea and vomiting en EspanolPostoperative nausea and vomiting en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list16 = Postoperative nausea and vomiting in the MarketplacePatents on Postoperative nausea and vomiting

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Postoperative nausea and vomiting | list17 = List of terms related to Postoperative nausea and vomiting


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