Polyp (medicine)

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Overview

Colon polyps
Polyp.jpeg
Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery
ICD-10 K63.5 & various
MedlinePlus 000266
eMedicine med/414 
MeSH C23.300.825

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List of terms related to Polyp (medicine)

A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue (tumor) projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, sinus(es), urinary bladder and uterus. They may also occur elsewhere in the body where mucous membranes exist like the cervix[1] and small intestine.

Colorectal polyp

Colon polyps are uncommonly associated with symptoms. Occasionally rectal bleeding, and on rare occasions pain, diarrhea or constipation may occur because of colon polyps. Colon polyps are a concern because of the potential for colon cancer being present microscopically and the risk of benign colon polyps transforming with time into colon cancer. Since most polyps are asymptomatic, they are usually discovered at the time of colon cancer screening with either digital rectal exam (DRE), flexible sigmoidoscopy, Barium enema, colonoscopy or virtual colonoscopy. The polyps are routinely removed at the time of colonoscopy either with a polypectomy snare (P.Deyhle, 1970) or with biopsy forceps. If an adenomatous polyp is found with flexible sigmoidoscopy or if a polyp is found with any other diagnostic modality, the patient must undergo colonoscopy for removal of the polyp(s). Even though colon cancer is usually not found in polyps smaller than 2.5 cm, all polyps found are removed since the removal of polyps reduces the future likelihood of developing colon cancer. When adenomatous polyps are removed, a repeat colonoscopy is usually performed in three to five years.

Most colon polyps can be categorized as sporadic.

Inherited Polyposis Syndromes

Non-inherited Polyposis Syndromes

Types of colon polyps

Endometrial polyp

An endometrial polyp or uterine polyp is a polyp or lesion in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) that takes up space within the uterine cavity. Commonly occurring, they are experienced by up to 10% of women.[2] They may have a large flat base (sessile) or be attached to the uterus by an elongated pedicle (pedunculated).[2][3] Pedunculated polyps are more common that sessile ones.[4] They range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.[3] If pedunculated, they can protrude through the cervix into the vagina.[2][5] Small blood vessels may be present in polyps, particularly large ones.[2]

Cervical polyp

A cervical polyp is a common benign polyp or tumour on the surface of the cervical canal.[6] They can cause irregular menstrual bleeding but often show no symptoms.[2] Treatment consists of simple removal of the polyp and prognosis is generally good.[7] About 1% of cervical polyps will show neoplastic change which may lead to cancer.[8] They are most common in post-menstrual, pre-menopausal women who have given birth.[9]

Nasal polyp

Footnotes

  1. Weschler, Toni (2002). Taking Charge of Your Fertility (Revised Edition ed.). New York: HarperCollins. pp. pp.227–228, 330. ISBN 0-06-093764-5.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Bates, Jane (2007). Practical Gynaecological Ultrasound. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 1900151510.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Uterine polyps". MayoClinic.com. 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  4. Sternberg, Stephen S. (2004). Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2460. ISBN 0781740517. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  5. "Dysmenorrhea: Menstrual abnormalities". Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 2005. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  6. Boon, Mathilde E. (1996). The Pap Smear. Taylor & Francis. p. 87. ISBN 3718658577. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  7. Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). "Cervical polyps". MEDLINE. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  8. Tillman, Elizabeth, Short Instructor Materials (PDF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, retrieved 2007-10-21
  9. Bosze, Peter (2004). Eagc Course Book on Colposcopy. Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 9630073560. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)

External links

Cost Effectiveness of Polyp (medicine)

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Polyp (medicine) | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Polyp (medicine) at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Polyp (medicine)Clinical Trials on Polyp (medicine) at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Polyp (medicine) | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Polyp (medicine)NICE Guidance on Polyp (medicine)NHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Polyp (medicine)CDC on Polyp (medicine)


| group7 = Textbook Information on Polyp (medicine) | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Polyp (medicine)


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Polyp (medicine)AND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Polyp (medicine)AND (side effects)}} Side effects of Polyp (medicine)AND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Polyp (medicine)AND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Polyp (medicine)AND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Polyp (medicine)AND (pregnancy)}} Polyp (medicine) in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Polyp (medicine)


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Polyp (medicine) | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Polyp (medicine)AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Polyp (medicine)AND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Polyp (medicine)


| group10 = Newstories on Polyp (medicine) | list10 = Polyp (medicine) in the newsBe alerted to news on Polyp (medicine)News trends on Polyp (medicine)


| group11 = Commentary on Polyp (medicine) | list11 = Blogs on Polyp (medicine)

| group12 = Patient Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list12 = Patient resources on Polyp (medicine)Discussion groups on Polyp (medicine)Patient Handouts on Polyp (medicine)Directions to Hospitals Treating Polyp (medicine)Risk calculators and risk factors for Polyp (medicine)


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list13 = Symptoms of Polyp (medicine)Causes & Risk Factors for Polyp (medicine)Diagnostic studies for Polyp (medicine)Treatment of Polyp (medicine)

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Polyp (medicine) | list14 = CME Programs on Polyp (medicine)

| group15 = International Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list15 = Polyp (medicine) en EspanolPolyp (medicine) en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list16 = Polyp (medicine) in the MarketplacePatents on Polyp (medicine)

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Polyp (medicine) | list17 = List of terms related to Polyp (medicine)


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