Polycomb-group proteins

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Polycomb-group proteins are a family of proteins first discovered in fruit flies that can remodel chromatin such that transcription factors cannot bind to promoter sequences in DNA. Polycomb group proteins play a role in silencing HOX genes through modulation of chromatin structure.[1]

In insects

In Drosophila, the Trithorax-group (trxG) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins act antagonistically and interact with chromosomal elements, termed Cellular Memory Modules (CMMs). Trithorax-group (trxG) proteins maintain the active state of gene expression while the Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins counteract this activation with a repressive function that is stable over many cell generations and can only be overcome by germline differentiation processes. Polycomb Gene complexes or PcG silencing involves at least three kinds of multiprotein complex PRC1, PRC2 and PhoRC which work together to carry out their repressive effect.

In mammals

In humans Polycomb Group gene expression is important in many aspects of development. Although pathogenic mutations in polycomb group genes have not been identified, abnormal levels of PcG proteins correlate with the severity and invasiveness of several cancer types. The mammalian PRC1 core complexes are very similar to Drosophila.

References

  1. Portoso M and Cavalli G (2008). "The Role of RNAi and Noncoding RNAs in Polycomb Mediated Control of Gene Expression and Genomic Programming". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of Complexity. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7.
  • Polycomb silencing mechanisms and the management of genomic programmes - Y. B. Schwartz, V. Pirrotta (Jan 2007); Nat. Rev. Genet. 8(1):9 (PMID 17173055)
  • Genome Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax Proteins. Schuettengruber, B., Chourrout, D., Vervoort, M., Leblanc, B., and Cavalli, G. (2007). Cell 128, 735-745 (PMID 17320510)

External links

  • The Polycomb and Trithorax page of the Cavalli lab This page contains useful information on Polycomb and trithorax proteins, in the form of an introduction, links to published reviews, list of Polycomb and trithorax proteins, illustrative power point slides and a link to a genome browser showing the genome-wide distribution of these proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

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| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Polycomb-group proteins | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Polycomb-group proteins at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Polycomb-group proteinsClinical Trials on Polycomb-group proteins at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Polycomb-group proteins | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Polycomb-group proteinsNICE Guidance on Polycomb-group proteinsNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Polycomb-group proteinsCDC on Polycomb-group proteins


| group7 = Textbook Information on Polycomb-group proteins | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Polycomb-group proteins


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Polycomb-group proteinsAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Polycomb-group proteinsAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Polycomb-group proteinsAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Polycomb-group proteinsAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Polycomb-group proteinsAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Polycomb-group proteinsAND (pregnancy)}} Polycomb-group proteins in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Polycomb-group proteins


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Polycomb-group proteins | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Polycomb-group proteinsAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Polycomb-group proteinsAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Polycomb-group proteins


| group10 = Newstories on Polycomb-group proteins | list10 = Polycomb-group proteins in the newsBe alerted to news on Polycomb-group proteinsNews trends on Polycomb-group proteins


| group11 = Commentary on Polycomb-group proteins | list11 = Blogs on Polycomb-group proteins

| group12 = Patient Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list12 = Patient resources on Polycomb-group proteinsDiscussion groups on Polycomb-group proteinsPatient Handouts on Polycomb-group proteinsDirections to Hospitals Treating Polycomb-group proteinsRisk calculators and risk factors for Polycomb-group proteins


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list13 = Symptoms of Polycomb-group proteinsCauses & Risk Factors for Polycomb-group proteinsDiagnostic studies for Polycomb-group proteinsTreatment of Polycomb-group proteins

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Polycomb-group proteins | list14 = CME Programs on Polycomb-group proteins

| group15 = International Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list15 = Polycomb-group proteins en EspanolPolycomb-group proteins en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list16 = Polycomb-group proteins in the MarketplacePatents on Polycomb-group proteins

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Polycomb-group proteins | list17 = List of terms related to Polycomb-group proteins


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