Platelet-activating factor

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Platelet-activating factor
Identifiers
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MeSH Platelet+Activating+Factor
Properties
C26H54NO7P
Molar mass 523.683
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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A platelet-activating factor, also known as a PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine) is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leucocyte functions, including platelet aggregation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.

It is produced in response to specific stimuli by a variety of cell types, including neutrophils, basophils, platelets, and endothelial cells.

Chemistry

Several molecular species of platelet-activating factor have been identified which vary in the length of the O-alkyl side chain.

  • Its alkyl group is connected by an ether linkage at the C1 carbon to a sixteen carbon chain.
  • The acyl group at the C2 carbon is an acetate unit (as opposed to a fatty acid) whose short length increases the solubility of PAF, allowing it to function as a soluble signal messenger.
  • The C3 has a phosphocholine head group, just like standard phosphatidylcholine.

Function

It is an important mediator of bronchoconstriction.

It causes platelets to aggregate and blood vessels to dilate. At a concentration of 10^-12 M, PAF causes life threatening inflammation of the airways to induce asthma like symptoms.

Toxins such as fragments of destroyed bacteria induce the synthesis of PAF, which causes a drop in blood pressure and reduced volume of blood pumped by the heart, which leads to shock and maybe death.

History

It was discovered by French immunologist Jacques Benveniste in the early 1970s.[1][2] Its structure was elucidated by Constantinos A. Demopoulos in 1979.[3]

Biosynthesis and degradation

PAF is biosynthesized from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and acetyl CoA by the enzyme LPC acetyltransferase (LPCAT).

It is degraded (thereby terminating its capacity to act as a signaling molecule) by a group of enzymes called PAF acetylhydrolases (PAFAHs) which are related to phospholipase A2.

Antagonists

See also

References

  1. Benveniste J, Henson PM, Cochrane CG (1972). "Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelets. The role of IgE, basophils, and a platelet-activating factor". J. Exp. Med. 136 (6): 1356–77. PMID 4118412.
  2. Benveniste J (1974). "Platelet-activating factor, a new mediator of anaphylaxis and immune complex deposition from rabbit and human basophils". Nature. 249 (457): 581–2. doi:10.1038/249581a0. PMID 4275800.
  3. Demopoulos CA, Pinckard RN, Hanahan DJ (1979). "Platelet-activating factor. Evidence for 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine as the active component (a new class of lipid chemical mediators)". J. Biol. Chem. 254 (19): 9355–8. PMID 489536.
  4. Platelet-Activating Factor Antagonist, SM-12502, Attenuates ...

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| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Platelet-activating factor | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Platelet-activating factor at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Platelet-activating factorClinical Trials on Platelet-activating factor at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Platelet-activating factor | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Platelet-activating factorNICE Guidance on Platelet-activating factorNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Platelet-activating factorCDC on Platelet-activating factor


| group7 = Textbook Information on Platelet-activating factor | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Platelet-activating factor


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Platelet-activating factorAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Platelet-activating factorAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Platelet-activating factorAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Platelet-activating factorAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Platelet-activating factorAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Platelet-activating factorAND (pregnancy)}} Platelet-activating factor in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Platelet-activating factor


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Platelet-activating factor | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Platelet-activating factorAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Platelet-activating factorAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Platelet-activating factor


| group10 = Newstories on Platelet-activating factor | list10 = Platelet-activating factor in the newsBe alerted to news on Platelet-activating factorNews trends on Platelet-activating factor


| group11 = Commentary on Platelet-activating factor | list11 = Blogs on Platelet-activating factor

| group12 = Patient Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list12 = Patient resources on Platelet-activating factorDiscussion groups on Platelet-activating factorPatient Handouts on Platelet-activating factorDirections to Hospitals Treating Platelet-activating factorRisk calculators and risk factors for Platelet-activating factor


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list13 = Symptoms of Platelet-activating factorCauses & Risk Factors for Platelet-activating factorDiagnostic studies for Platelet-activating factorTreatment of Platelet-activating factor

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Platelet-activating factor | list14 = CME Programs on Platelet-activating factor

| group15 = International Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list15 = Platelet-activating factor en EspanolPlatelet-activating factor en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list16 = Platelet-activating factor in the MarketplacePatents on Platelet-activating factor

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Platelet-activating factor | list17 = List of terms related to Platelet-activating factor


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de:Plättchenaktivierender Faktor




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