Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Phytohaemagglutinin


Most recent articles on Phytohaemagglutinin

Most cited articles on Phytohaemagglutinin

Review articles on Phytohaemagglutinin

Articles on Phytohaemagglutinin in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Phytohaemagglutinin

Images of Phytohaemagglutinin

Photos of Phytohaemagglutinin

Podcasts & MP3s on Phytohaemagglutinin

Videos on Phytohaemagglutinin

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Phytohaemagglutinin

Bandolier on Phytohaemagglutinin

TRIP on Phytohaemagglutinin

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Phytohaemagglutinin at Clinical

Trial results on Phytohaemagglutinin

Clinical Trials on Phytohaemagglutinin at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Phytohaemagglutinin

NICE Guidance on Phytohaemagglutinin


FDA on Phytohaemagglutinin

CDC on Phytohaemagglutinin


Books on Phytohaemagglutinin


Phytohaemagglutinin in the news

Be alerted to news on Phytohaemagglutinin

News trends on Phytohaemagglutinin


Blogs on Phytohaemagglutinin


Definitions of Phytohaemagglutinin

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Phytohaemagglutinin

Discussion groups on Phytohaemagglutinin

Patient Handouts on Phytohaemagglutinin

Directions to Hospitals Treating Phytohaemagglutinin

Risk calculators and risk factors for Phytohaemagglutinin

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Phytohaemagglutinin

Causes & Risk Factors for Phytohaemagglutinin

Diagnostic studies for Phytohaemagglutinin

Treatment of Phytohaemagglutinin

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Phytohaemagglutinin


Phytohaemagglutinin en Espanol

Phytohaemagglutinin en Francais


Phytohaemagglutinin in the Marketplace

Patents on Phytohaemagglutinin

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Phytohaemagglutinin

Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [1] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch.

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or phytohemagglutinin) is a lectin found in plants, especially beans. It is found in the highest concentrations in uncooked red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and it is also found in lower quantities in many types of green bean. It has a number of physiological effects and is used in medical research. In high doses it is a toxin.

Crystal structure of PHA-L (Protein Data Bank identifier 1FAT)

The lectin has a number of effects on cell metabolism: it induces mitosis, and affects the cell membrane in regard to transport and permeability to proteins. It agglutinates most mammalian red blood cell types.

As a toxin it can cause poisoning in monogastric animals, such as humans, through the consumption of raw or improperly prepared kidney beans. Measured in haemagglutinating units (hau) a raw kidney bean can contain up to 70,000 hau. This can be reduced around 200-fold by correct cooking. The bean also contains α-amylase inhibitor.

Poisoning can be induced from as few as five raw beans and symptoms occur within three hours, beginning with nausea then vomiting which can be severe and sustained (profuse), then diarrhea. Recovery occurs within four or five hours of onset, usually without the need for any medical intervention.

Medically it is used as a mitogen to trigger cell division in T-lymphocytes, and to activate latent HIV-1 from human peripheral lymphocytes.

PHA actually consists of two closely related proteins, called PHA-L and PHA-E. The letters E and L point to the fact that these proteins agglutinate Erythrocytes and Leukocytes, respectively.


  • Hamelryck T, Dao-Thi M, Poortmans F, Chrispeels M, Wyns L, Loris R (1996). "The crystallographic structure of phytohemagglutinin-L". J Biol Chem. 271 (34): 20479–85. PMID 8702788.

External links

Cost Effectiveness of Phytohaemagglutinin

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Phytohaemagglutinin | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Phytohaemagglutinin at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on PhytohaemagglutininClinical Trials on Phytohaemagglutinin at Google

| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Phytohaemagglutinin | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on PhytohaemagglutininNICE Guidance on PhytohaemagglutininNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on PhytohaemagglutininCDC on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group7 = Textbook Information on Phytohaemagglutinin | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of PhytohaemagglutininAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with PhytohaemagglutininAND (side effects)}} Side effects of PhytohaemagglutininAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to PhytohaemagglutininAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on PhytohaemagglutininAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on PhytohaemagglutininAND (pregnancy)}} Phytohaemagglutinin in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Phytohaemagglutinin

| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Phytohaemagglutinin | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of PhytohaemagglutininAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of PhytohaemagglutininAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Phytohaemagglutinin

| group10 = Newstories on Phytohaemagglutinin | list10 = Phytohaemagglutinin in the newsBe alerted to news on PhytohaemagglutininNews trends on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group11 = Commentary on Phytohaemagglutinin | list11 = Blogs on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group12 = Patient Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list12 = Patient resources on PhytohaemagglutininDiscussion groups on PhytohaemagglutininPatient Handouts on PhytohaemagglutininDirections to Hospitals Treating PhytohaemagglutininRisk calculators and risk factors for Phytohaemagglutinin

| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list13 = Symptoms of PhytohaemagglutininCauses & Risk Factors for PhytohaemagglutininDiagnostic studies for PhytohaemagglutininTreatment of Phytohaemagglutinin

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Phytohaemagglutinin | list14 = CME Programs on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group15 = International Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list15 = Phytohaemagglutinin en EspanolPhytohaemagglutinin en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list16 = Phytohaemagglutinin in the MarketplacePatents on Phytohaemagglutinin

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Phytohaemagglutinin | list17 = List of terms related to Phytohaemagglutinin