Peripheral ossifying fibroma

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Peripheral ossifying fibroma is an oral pathologic condition that appears in the mouth as an overgrowth of gingival tissue due to irritation or trauma. Because of its overwhelming incidence on the gingiva, the condition is associated with two other diseases, though not because they occur together. Instead, the three are associated with each other because they appear frequently on gingiva and they also begin with the letter "p": pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Some researchers believe peripheral ossifying fibromas to be related to pyogenic fibromas and, in some instances, are the result of a pyogenic granuloma which has undergone fibrosis and calcification.

The color of peripheral ossifying fibromas ranges from red to pink, and is frequently ulcerated. It can be sessile or pedunculated with the size usually being less than 2 cm. Weeks or months may pass by before it seen and diagnosed.

There is a gender difference with 66% of the disease occurring in females. The prevalence of peripheral ossifying fibromas is highest around 10 - 19 years of age. It appears only on the gingiva, more often on the maxilla rather than the mandible, and is frequently found in the area around incisors and canines. The adjacent teeth are usually not affected.

Peripheral ossifying fibromas appear microscopically as a combination of a mineralized product and fibrous proliferation. The mineralized portion may be bone, cementum-like, or dystrophic calcifications. Additionally, highly developed bone or cementum is more likely to be present when the peripheral ossifying fibroma has existed for a longer period of time.

Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the lesion down to the bone. If there are any adjacent teeth, they are cleaned thoroughly to remove any possible source of irritation. Recurrence is around 16%.

References

  • Kahn, Michael A. Basic Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Volume 1. 2001.



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