Peripheral arterial disease causes

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Peripheral arterial disease Microchapters

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Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Peripheral arterial disease from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Guidelines for Management

Case Studies

Case #1

AHA/ACC Guidelines on Management of Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Diagnostic Testing for suspected PAD

Guidelines for Screening for Atherosclerotic Disease in Other Vascular Beds in patients with Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Medical Therapy for Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Structured Exercise Therapy for Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Minimizing Tissue Loss in Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Revascularization of Claudication in Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Management of CLI in Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Management of Acute Limb Ischemial in Lower Extremity PAD

Guidelines for Longitudinal Follow-up for Lower Extremity PAD

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Rim Halaby

Overview

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is most commonly a manifestation of atherosclerosis resulting from vascular inflammation. Other uncommon causes should be suspected when the PAD occurs at a young age and in the context of a positive history. Uncommon causes include degenerative diseases (Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), dysplastic disorders (fibromuscular dysplasia), inflammatory diseases (arteritis) and hypercoagulable states.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Arterial dissection, arteriomegaly, arteritis, atheroembolism, atherosclerosis, Buergers disease, cystic adventitial disease, Erdheim cystic medial necrosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, hypertension, Leriche's syndrome, multifocal fibrosclerosis, Sneddon syndrome, Takayasu's arteritis, temporal arteritis, thromboangiitis obliterans, thromboembolism, thrombosed aneurysm, vasculitis
Chemical / poisoning Ergot use
Dermatologic Sneddon syndrome, vasculitis
Drug Side Effect Ergot use
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Diabetes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Deafness peripheral neuropathy and arterial disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, Marfan's syndrome, neurofibromatosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum
Hematologic Hypercoagulable state, thrombophilia, thrombosis
Iatrogenic Radiation arteritis, radiation fibrosis, surgery, thrombosis
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Neurofibromatosis, Sneddon syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic Hyperlipidemia, homocysteinemia, lipoproteinemia
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Cancer, tumor
Opthalmologic Sneddon syndrome
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Buergers disease, retroperitoneal fibrosis, Sneddon syndrome, thromboangiitis obliterans, vasculitis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Iliac endofibrosis (athletic injury), limb trauma, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome
Urologic Retroperitoneal fibrosis
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Obesity

Causes in Alphabetical Order


References

  1. Okello S, Millard A, Owori R, Asiimwe SB, Siedner MJ, Rwebembera J; et al. (2014). "Prevalence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease among adult diabetes patients in southwestern Uganda.". BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 14: 75. PMC 4057935Freely accessible. PMID 24913468. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-75. 



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