Parathyroid cancer differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Parathyroid cancer must be differentiated from other conditions presenting as a neck swelling.[1]

Differentiating Parathyroid cancer from other Diseases

Parathyroid cancer must be differentiated from other conditions presenting as neck swelling. The differentials include the following:

Category Diseases Benign Demography History Pain Dysphagia Mass exam Others Lab findings Histopathology Imaging Gold standard diagnosis Associated findings
Neoplasm Hypopharyngeal cancer[2][3][4]
  • More common in males
  • Age: 55-65 years old
  • Incidence: < 1/100,000 in U.S.
  • More common in Japan, India, Iran
+
Parathyroid cancer[5][6][7]
  • Incidence: Rare
  • Mean age : 44-54 years old
  • Gender: Female predilection
+ +
Carotid body tumors[8][9][10][11]
  • Age: 26-55 years
  • Male predominance
+
Paraganglioma[12][13][14]
  • Age 50-70 years
  • More in females
Category Diseases Benign Demography History Pain Dysphagia Mass exam Others Lab findings Histopathology Imaging Gold standard diagnosis Associated findings
Neoplasm Schwannoma[15][16][17]
  • Rare tumor
  • Incidence: 1-10%
+ ±
  • Multiple
  • Slow growing nodules on the skin
  • May be normal
  • Encapsulated neural tissue growth
Lymphoma [18][19][20][21][22][23]
  • Age: Predilection for older age
  • Mean age: 55
±
  • On complete node analysis four patterns are described:
    • Nodular/follicular
    • Diffuse pattern
    • Transition from a nodular to a diffuse pattern in adjacent nodes
    • Transition from a lower to a higher grade of involvement within a single node
Liposarcoma [24][25][26][27]
  • Rare tumor
  • Age: Relatively in older age
  • Gender: No gender predilection
  • Mobile mass
  • Few symptoms until they grow enough to compress the surrounding structures
  • Symptoms of neural deficit, pain, tingling, or skin changes
±
  • Intact skin and normal color
  • Normal
Category Diseases Benign Demography History Pain Dysphagia Mass exam Others Lab findings Histopathology Imaging Gold standard diagnosis Associated findings
Neoplasm Lipoma [28][29][30]
  • One or multiple soft, painless skin nodules
  • May causes pain or compressive symptoms
±
  • Normal
  • Normal
  • Diagnoses is usually clinical
  • Tissue biopsy may show:
    • Bundle of well-demarcated lipocytes
    • Single nuclei aligned to the side
    • Intra-cytoplasimic fat granules
Glomus vagale, glomus jugulare tumors[31][32][33][34][35][36]
  • Rare tumor
  • Painless slowly enlarging mass in the neck
±
  • Normal
Metastatic head and neck cancer[37][38] ±
  • Vary depending on the underlying cancer
Category Diseases Benign Demography History Pain Dysphagia Mass exam Others Lab findings Histopathology Imaging Gold standard diagnosis Associated findings
Other Laryngeal cancer[39][40] Benign/Malignant
  • Older males
  • Younger patients with HPV infection or smoking history
± ±

human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Arteriovenous fistula

[41][42]

  • Depends on the risk factors
  • Varies depending on the etiology
Thyroid nodule/ Goiter

[43][44][45][46]

  • Female predominance
  • Young age (benign causes)
  • Old age (malignant etiology)
± ±
  • Painless
  • Non-tender
  • Asymmetrical neck mass in front of neck
  • With smooth overlying skin
  • Nodular surface
  • Depending on the type:
  • Normal to low TSH levels in case of malignancy
  • High TSH levels in case of goiter
Category Diseases Benign Demography History Pain Dysphagia Mass exam Others Lab findings Histopathology Imaging Gold standard diagnosis Associated findings

Reference

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