Paneth cell

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Paneth cells provide host defense against microbes in the small intestine. They are functionally similar to neutrophils. When exposed to bacteria or bacterial antigens, Paneth cells secrete a number of antimicrobial molecules into the lumen of the crypt, thereby contributing to maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier. Paneth cells are named after Joseph Paneth (1857–1890), Austrian physician.

Stem cells

Small intestinal crypts house stem cells that serve to constantly replenish epithelial cells that die and are lost from the villi.

Protection of these stem cells is essential for long-term maintenance of the intestinal epithelium, and the location of Paneth cells adjacent to stem cells suggests that they play a critical role in defending epithelial cell renewal.

Secretions

Paneth cells

Defensins

The principal defense molecules secreted by Paneth cells are alpha-defensins, also known as cryptdin.[1] These peptides have hydrophobic and positively-charged domains that can interact with phospholipids in cell membranes. This structure allows defensins to insert into membranes, where they interact with one another to form pores that disrupt membrane function, leading to cell lysis. Due to the higher concentration of negatively-charged phospholipids in bacterial than vertebrate cell membranes, defensins preferentially bind to and disrupt bacterial cells, sparing the cells they are functioning to protect.[2]

Paneth cells are stimulated to secrete defensins when exposed to bacteria (both Gram positive and negative types) or such bacterial products as lipopolysaccharide, muramyl dipeptide and lipid A.

Other secretions

In addition to defensins, Paneth cells secrete lysozyme and phospholipase A2, both of which have clear antimicrobial activity. This battery of secretory molecules gives Paneth cells a potent arsenal against a broad spectrum of agents, including bacteria, fungi and even some enveloped viruses.

References

  1. Wilson C, Ouellette A, Satchell D, Ayabe T, López-Boado Y, Stratman J, Hultgren S, Matrisian L, Parks W (1999). "Regulation of intestinal alpha-defensin activation by the metalloproteinase matrilysin in innate host defense.". Science. 286 (5437): 113–7. PMID 10506557. 
  2. Ayabe T, Satchell D, Wilson C, Parks W, Selsted M, Ouellette A (2000). "Secretion of microbicidal alpha-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria.". Nat Immunol. 1 (2): 113–8. PMID 11248802. 

Further reading

  • Ganz T (1999). "Defensins and host defense.". Science. 286 (5439): 420–1. PMID 10577203. 
  • Ganz T (2000). "Paneth cells--guardians of the gut cell hatchery.". Nat Immunol. 1 (2): 99–100. PMID 11248797. 

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sv: panethceller de: Panethzelle



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