Nitrosamine

Jump to: navigation, search
Structure of the nitrosamino group


WikiDoc Resources for Nitrosamine

Articles

Most recent articles on Nitrosamine

Most cited articles on Nitrosamine

Review articles on Nitrosamine

Articles on Nitrosamine in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Nitrosamine

Images of Nitrosamine

Photos of Nitrosamine

Podcasts & MP3s on Nitrosamine

Videos on Nitrosamine

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Nitrosamine

Bandolier on Nitrosamine

TRIP on Nitrosamine

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Nitrosamine at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Nitrosamine

Clinical Trials on Nitrosamine at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Nitrosamine

NICE Guidance on Nitrosamine

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Nitrosamine

CDC on Nitrosamine

Books

Books on Nitrosamine

News

Nitrosamine in the news

Be alerted to news on Nitrosamine

News trends on Nitrosamine

Commentary

Blogs on Nitrosamine

Definitions

Definitions of Nitrosamine

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Nitrosamine

Discussion groups on Nitrosamine

Patient Handouts on Nitrosamine

Directions to Hospitals Treating Nitrosamine

Risk calculators and risk factors for Nitrosamine

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Nitrosamine

Causes & Risk Factors for Nitrosamine

Diagnostic studies for Nitrosamine

Treatment of Nitrosamine

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Nitrosamine

International

Nitrosamine en Espanol

Nitrosamine en Francais

Business

Nitrosamine in the Marketplace

Patents on Nitrosamine

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Nitrosamine

Overview

Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic.

Occurrence in food

Nitrosamines are produced from nitrites and secondary amines, which often occur in the form of proteins. Their formation can occur only under certain conditions, including strongly acidic conditions such as that of the human stomach. High temperatures, as in frying, can also enhance the formation of nitrosamines.

The nitrite forms nitrous acid (HNO2), which splits into the nitrosonium cation, N=O+, and the hydroxide anion, OH. The nitrosonium cation then reacts with an amine to produce nitrosamine.

Nitrosamines are found in many foodstuffs especially beer, fish, fish byproducts, and in meat and cheese products preserved with nitrite pickling salt. The US government established limits on the amount of nitrites used in meat products to decrease cancer risk in the population. There are also rules about adding ascorbic acid or related compounds to meat, because they inhibit nitrosamine formation.

Occurrence in other consumer products

Nitrosamines can be found in tobacco smoke and latex products. A test of party balloons and condoms indicated that many of them release small amounts of nitrosamines.[1] However, nitrosamines from condoms are not expected to be of toxicological significance.[1]

Cancer

Nitrosamines can cause cancers in a wide variety of animal species, a feature which suggests that they may also be carcinogenic in humans. Epidemiological data suggests that nitrosamines in preserved food cause stomach cancer.[2]

Uses

  • Rubber products
  • Pesticides
  • Certain cosmetics

Examples of nitrosamines

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines

Other nitrosamines

See also

  • Nitroamine (without the 's'), compounds of the formula R2N-NO2.
  • Nitroso, compounds of the formula R-NO

External links

References

  1. Proksch E. Toxicological evaluation of nitrosamines in condoms. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2001 Nov;204(2-3):103-10. PMID 11759152
  2. Jakszyn P, Gonzalez CA. Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul 21;12(27):4296-303. PMID 16865769



Linked-in.jpg