Nitrifying bacteria

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Nitrifying bacteria

Articles

Most recent articles on Nitrifying bacteria

Most cited articles on Nitrifying bacteria

Review articles on Nitrifying bacteria

Articles on Nitrifying bacteria in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Nitrifying bacteria

Images of Nitrifying bacteria

Photos of Nitrifying bacteria

Podcasts & MP3s on Nitrifying bacteria

Videos on Nitrifying bacteria

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Nitrifying bacteria

Bandolier on Nitrifying bacteria

TRIP on Nitrifying bacteria

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Nitrifying bacteria at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Nitrifying bacteria

Clinical Trials on Nitrifying bacteria at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Nitrifying bacteria

NICE Guidance on Nitrifying bacteria

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Nitrifying bacteria

CDC on Nitrifying bacteria

Books

Books on Nitrifying bacteria

News

Nitrifying bacteria in the news

Be alerted to news on Nitrifying bacteria

News trends on Nitrifying bacteria

Commentary

Blogs on Nitrifying bacteria

Definitions

Definitions of Nitrifying bacteria

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Nitrifying bacteria

Discussion groups on Nitrifying bacteria

Patient Handouts on Nitrifying bacteria

Directions to Hospitals Treating Nitrifying bacteria

Risk calculators and risk factors for Nitrifying bacteria

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Nitrifying bacteria

Causes & Risk Factors for Nitrifying bacteria

Diagnostic studies for Nitrifying bacteria

Treatment of Nitrifying bacteria

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Nitrifying bacteria

International

Nitrifying bacteria en Espanol

Nitrifying bacteria en Francais

Business

Nitrifying bacteria in the Marketplace

Patents on Nitrifying bacteria

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Nitrifying bacteria


Nitrifying bacteria are chemoautotrophic bacteria that grow at the expense of inorganic nitrogen compounds.[1] Many species of nitrifying bacteria have complex internal membrane systems that are the location for key enzymes in nitrification: ammonia monooxygenase which oxidizes ammonia to hydroxylamine, and nitrite oxidoreductase, which oxidizes nitrite to nitrate.

Ecology

Nitrifying bacteria are widespread in soil and water, and are found in highest numbers where considerable amounts of ammonia are present (areas with extensive protein decomposition, and sewage treatment plants).[2] Nitrifying bacteria thrive in lakes and streams high imputs of sewage and wastewater because of the high ammonia content.

Oxidation of ammonia to nitrate

Nitrification in nature is the result of actions of two groups of organisms, the nitrosifyers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and nitrifying bacteria (nitrite-oxidizing, nitrate producing bacteria)[3]

Nitrosifying bacteria
1. NH3 + O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → NH2OH + H2O
2. NH2OH + H2O + 1/2 O2 → NO2- +2 H2O + H+
Nitrifying bacteria
NO2- + 1/2 O2 → NO3-

Nitrifying bacteria that oxidize ammonia (nitrosifyers)

Template:Standard table

Characteristics Genus Phylogenetic group DNA (mol% GC) Habitats
Gram-negative short to long rods, motile (polar flagella)or nonmotile; peripheral membrane systems Nitrosomonas Beta 45-53 Soil, Sewage, freshwater, Marine
Large cocci, motile, vesicular or peripheral membranes Nitrosococcus Gamma 49-50 Freshwater, Marine
Spirals, motile (peritrichous flagella); no obvious membrane system Nitrosospira Beta 54 Soil
Pleomorphic, lobular, compartmented cells; motile (peritrichous flagella) Nitrosolobus Beta 54 Soil

|}

Nitrifying bacteria that oxidize nitrite

Template:Standard table

Characteristics Genus Phylogenetic group DNA (mol% GC) Habitats
Short rods, reproduce by budding, occasionally motile (single subterminal flagella) or non-motile; membrane system arranged as a polar cap Nitrobacter Alpha 59-62 Soil, Freshwater, Marine
Long, slender rods, nonmotile, no obvious membrane system Nitrospina Delta 58 Marine
Large Cocci, motile (one or two subterminal flagellum) membrane system randomly arranged in tubes Nitrococcus Gamma 61 Marine
Helical to vibroid-shaped cells; nonmotile; no internal membranes Nitrospira Nitrospirae 50 Marine, Soil

|}

See also

References

  1. Mancinelli RL (1996). "The nature of nitrogen: an overview". Life support & biosphere science : international journal of earth space. 3 (1–2): 17–24. PMID 11539154.
  2. Belser LW (1979). "Population ecology of nitrifying bacteria". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 33: 309–33. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.33.100179.001521. PMID 386925.
  3. Ward BB (1996). "Nitrification and ammonification in aquatic systems". Life support & biosphere science : international journal of earth space. 3 (1–2): 25–9. PMID 11539155.




Linked-in.jpg