Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2]Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma include the family history of cancer, smoking, some disease in ear, nose, and throat, inadequate consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, heavily alcohol consuming, herbal products and exposure to wood dust.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

References

  1. Chang, E. T.; Adami, H.-O. (2006). "The Enigmatic Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 15 (10): 1765–1777. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0353. ISSN 1055-9965.
  2. Friborg, Jeppe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Koch, Anders; Storm, Hans; Olsen, Ove R.; Melbye, Mads (2005). "Cancer Susceptibility in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Families—A Population-Based Cohort Study". Cancer Research. 65 (18): 8567–8572. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4208. ISSN 0008-5472.
  3. Guo, Xiuchan; Johnson, Randall C.; Deng, Hong; Liao, Jian; Guan, Li; Nelson, George W.; Tang, Mingzhong; Zheng, Yuming; de The, Guy; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zeng, Yi (2009). "Evaluation of nonviral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high-risk population of Southern China". International Journal of Cancer. 124 (12): 2942–2947. doi:10.1002/ijc.24293. ISSN 0020-7136.
  4. Ji, Xuemei; Zhang, Weidong; Xie, Conghua; Wang, Bicheng; Zhang, Gong; Zhou, Fuxiang (2011). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk by histologic type in central China: Impact of smoking, alcohol and family history". International Journal of Cancer. 129 (3): 724–732. doi:10.1002/ijc.25696. ISSN 0020-7136.
  5. J. M. Yuan, X. L. Wang, Y. B. Xiang, Y. T. Gao, R. K. Ross & M. C. Yu (2000). "Non-dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Shanghai, China". International journal of cancer. 85 (3): 364–369. PMID 10652428. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Wiwat Ekburanawat, Chatchai Ekpanyaskul, Paul Brennan, Chaiyaporn Kanka, Kitisak Tepsuwan, Somnuk Temiyastith, Tawin Klinvimol, Surathat Pongnikorn & Suleeporn Sangrajrang (2010). "Evaluation of non-viral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Thailand: results from a case-control study". Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 11 (4): 929–932. PMID 21133603.
  7. Marron, M.; Boffetta, P.; Zhang, Z.-F.; Zaridze, D.; Wunsch-Filho, V.; Winn, D. M; Wei, Q.; Talamini, R.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Sturgis, E. M; Smith, E.; Schwartz, S. M; Rudnai, P.; Purdue, M. P; Olshan, A. F; Eluf-Neto, J.; Muscat, J.; Morgenstern, H.; Menezes, A.; McClean, M.; Matos, E.; Mates, I. N.; Lissowska, J.; Levi, F.; Lazarus, P.; Vecchia, C. L.; Koifman, S.; Kelsey, K.; Herrero, R.; Hayes, R. B; Franceschi, S.; Fernandez, L.; Fabianova, E.; Daudt, A. W; Maso, L. D.; Curado, M. P.; Cadoni, G.; Chen, C.; Castellsague, X.; Boccia, S.; Benhamou, S.; Ferro, G.; Berthiller, J.; Brennan, P.; Moller, H.; Hashibe, M. (2009). "Cessation of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the reversal of head and neck cancer risk". International Journal of Epidemiology. 39 (1): 182–196. doi:10.1093/ije/dyp291. ISSN 0300-5771.
  8. A. Hildesheim, S. West, E. DeVeyra, M. F. De Guzman, A. Jurado, C. Jones, J. Imai & Y. Hinuma (1992). "Herbal medicine use, Epstein-Barr virus, and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma". Cancer research. 52 (11): 3048–3051. PMID 1317256. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. S. West, A. Hildesheim & M. Dosemeci (1993). "Non-viral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Philippines: results from a case-control study". International journal of cancer. 55 (5): 722–727. PMID 7503957. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Hsu, W.-L.; Chen, J.-Y.; Chien, Y.-C.; Liu, M.-Y.; You, S.-L.; Hsu, M.-M.; Yang, C.-S.; Chen, C.-J. (2009). "Independent Effect of EBV and Cigarette Smoking on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study on 9,622 Males without Family History in Taiwan". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 18 (4): 1218–1226. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1175. ISSN 1055-9965.
  11. M. C. Yu, D. H. Garabrant, T. B. Huang & B. E. Henderson (1990). "Occupational and other non-dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guangzhou, China". International journal of cancer. 45 (6): 1033–1039. PMID 2351484. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. R. W. Armstrong, P. B. Imrey, M. S. Lye, M. J. Armstrong, M. C. Yu & S. Sani (2000). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: occupational exposures to particles, formaldehyde and heat". International journal of epidemiology. 29 (6): 991–998. PMID 11101539. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. Yang, X.(R. (2005). "Evaluation of Risk Factors for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in High-Risk Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Families in Taiwan". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 14 (4): 900–905. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0680. ISSN 1055-9965.
  14. A. Hildesheim, M. Dosemeci, C. C. Chan, C. J. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, M. M. Hsu, I. H. Chen, B. F. Mittl, B. Sun, P. H. Levine, J. Y. Chen, L. A. Brinton & C. S. Yang (2001). "Occupational exposure to wood, formaldehyde, and solvents and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma". Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 10 (11): 1145–1153. PMID 11700262. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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