Nasopharyngeal carcinoma epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2]Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [3]

Overview

The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is different based on the geographic areas. The incidence in the USA is low, in Alaska and Greenland is moderate and the highest incidence is seen in southeast Asia, North Africa, southern China and middle east. The incidence of this disease increases with increasing age in low- risk population. However, in high-risk populations, the maximum incidence is seen in individuals around ages 50 to 59 and then the incidence decreases by increasing age. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually affects individuals of the Asian race, and is more commonly affected by male than female. The majority of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases are reported in southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa and also is more seen in Inuit Indians.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is different based on the geographic areas. The incidence in the USA is approximately 0.2 to 0.5 per 100,000 individuals, in Alaska and Greenland is 15 to 20 per 100,000 individuals and the highest incidence is seen in southeast Asia, North Africa, southern China and middle east with the incidence of 80 per 100,000 individuals.[1][2]

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate

  • In 2008 , the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is approximately 0.84 per 100,000 individuals with mortality rate of 61.13%.[3]

Age

Race

  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually affects individuals of the Asian race.[6]

Gender

Region

  • The majority of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases are reported in southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa and also is more seen in Inuit Indians.[8][9]

References

  1. Caponigro, Francesco; Longo, Francesco; Ionna, Franco; Perri, Francesco (2010). "Treatment approaches to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a review". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 21 (5): 471–477. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e328337160e. ISSN 0959-4973.
  2. Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H. (2012). "The battle against nasopharyngeal cancer". Radiotherapy and Oncology. 104 (3): 272–278. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2012.08.001. ISSN 0167-8140.
  3. Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie; Center, Melissa M.; Ferlay, Jacques; Ward, Elizabeth; Forman, David (2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 61 (2): 69–90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107. ISSN 0007-9235.
  4. Lee, Jivianne T.; Ko, Clifford Y. (2016). "Has survival improved for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States?". Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 132 (2): 303–308. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2004.09.018. ISSN 0194-5998.
  5. Lee, Anne W.M.; Foo, William; Mang, Oscar; Sze, W.M.; Chappell, Rick; Lau, W.H.; Ko, W.M. (2003). "Changing epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hong Kong over a 20-year period (1980-99): An encouraging reduction in both incidence and mortality". International Journal of Cancer. 103 (5): 680–685. doi:10.1002/ijc.10894. ISSN 0020-7136.
  6. Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge (2013). "Racial differences in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States". Cancer Epidemiology. 37 (6): 793–802. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2013.08.008. ISSN 1877-7821.
  7. Jia, Wei-Hua; Qin, Hai-De (2012). "Non-viral environmental risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A systematic review". Seminars in Cancer Biology. 22 (2): 117–126. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2012.01.009. ISSN 1044-579X.
  8. Chang, E. T.; Adami, H.-O. (2006). "The Enigmatic Epidemiology of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 15 (10): 1765–1777. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0353. ISSN 1055-9965.
  9. Muhyi Al-Sarraf & Maryada S. Reddy (2002). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma". Current treatment options in oncology. 3 (1): 21–32. PMID 12057084. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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