Nasopharyngeal carcinoma epidemiology and demographics
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Epidemiology and Demographics
- The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is different based on the geographic areas. The incidence in the USA is approximately 0.2 to 0.5 per 100,000 individuals, in Alaska and Greenland is 15 to 20 per 100,000 individuals and the highest incidence is seen in southeast Asia, North Africa, southern China and middle east with the incidence of 80 per 100,000 individuals.
Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate
- In 2008 , the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is approximately 0.84 per 100,000 individuals with mortality rate of 61.13%.
- The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma increases with increasing age in low- risk population. However, in high-risk populations, the maximum incidence is seen in individuals around ages 50 to 59 and then the incidence decreases by increasing age.
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma usually affects individuals of the Asian race.
- Nasopharyngeal carcinoma are more commonly affected by male than female. The male to female ratio is approximately 2-3 to 1.
- The majority of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases are reported in southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa and also is more seen in Inuit Indians.
- Caponigro, Francesco; Longo, Francesco; Ionna, Franco; Perri, Francesco (2010). "Treatment approaches to nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a review". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 21 (5): 471–477. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e328337160e. ISSN 0959-4973.
- Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H. (2012). "The battle against nasopharyngeal cancer". Radiotherapy and Oncology. 104 (3): 272–278. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2012.08.001. ISSN 0167-8140.
- Jemal, Ahmedin; Bray, Freddie; Center, Melissa M.; Ferlay, Jacques; Ward, Elizabeth; Forman, David (2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 61 (2): 69–90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107. ISSN 0007-9235.
- Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge (2013). "Racial differences in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the United States". Cancer Epidemiology. 37 (6): 793–802. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2013.08.008. ISSN 1877-7821.