An amine oxide, also known as amine-N-oxide and N-oxide, is a chemical compound that contains the functional group R3N+-O− (sometimes written as R3N=O or R3N→O). In the strict sense the term amine oxide applies only to oxides of tertiary amines including nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds like pyridine, but is sometimes also used for the analogous derivatives of primary and secondary amines.
Amine oxide are highly polar molecules have a high polarity close to that of quaternary ammonium salts. Small amine oxides are very hydrophilic and have an excellent water solubility and a very poor solubility in most organic solvents.
- Pyrolytic elimination. Amine oxides, when heated to 150 to 200 ºC eliminate a hydroxylamine, resulting in an alkene. This pyrolytic syn-elimination reaction is known under the name Cope reaction. The mechanism is similar to that of the Hofmann elimination.
- Reduction to amines. Amine oxides are readily converted to the parent amine by common reduction reagents including lithium aluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, catalytic reduction, zinc / acetic acid, and iron / acetic acid. Pyridine N-oxides can be deoxygenated by phosphorus oxychloride
- O-alkylation. Pyridine N-oxides react with alkyl halides to the O-alkylated product
- In the Meisenheimer rearrangement certain N-oxides R1R2R3N+O- rearrange to hydroxylamines R2R3N-O-R1  
- Functional group
- Amine, NR3
- Hydroxylamine, NR2OH
- Sulfoxide, R2S=O
- Azoxy, RN=N+(O–)R RN=N+RO−
- TEMPO (2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a stable amine oxide radical
- Chemistry of amine oxides
- Surfactants, types and uses (pdf)
- The amine oxides homepage
- Nomenclature of nitrogen compounds
- IUPAC definition (pdf)