Mycobacterium neworleansense

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Mycobacterium neworleansense
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. neworleansense
Binomial name
Mycobacterium neworleansense
Schinsky et al. 2004, ATCC 49403

Mycobacterium neworleansense

Mycobacterium neworleansense is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex. They are rapidly growing ubiquitous environmental organisms that normally inhabit soil, dust and water. These organisms frequently are human pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of clinically significant disease. It is important for practitioners to be aware of these organisms as possible etiological agents, as they are resistant to most first-line anti-tuberculous agents.

  • Etymology: neworleansense pertaining to New Orleans, LA, USA, the source of the type strain.

Description

Microscopy

  • The organisms are acid-fast, Gram-positive, pleomorphic bacilli. Long filamentous forms are often observed, but spores and capsules are absent.

Colony characteristics

  • Colonies are rough, wrinkled, irregular-edged and do not demonstrate aerial hyphae.
  • Colonies are white to slightly beige and small in diameter (approx. 1 mm) after incubation on heart infusion agar with 5 % (v/v) rabbit blood for 2 days at 35 °C.

Physiology

  • Growth occurs on Löwenstein–Jensen medium at 35 °C in less than 7 days, but no growth occurs at 42 °C.
  • Growth occurs on 5 % NaCl and on MacConkey's agar without crystal violet at 28 °C.
  • Semi-quantitative catalase activity is positive (>45 mm).
  • The isolate has arylsulfatase activity by 3 days, utilizes acetamide, reduces nitrate, exhibits iron uptake and produces urease and thermostable catalase.
  • It does not utilize citrate or grow in lysozyme.

Differential characteristics

  • The nearest phylogenetic neighbours, according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, are Mycobacterium boenickei ATCC 49935T and all M. porcinum isolates studied.

Pathogenesis

  • Reported infections include skin and soft-tissue abscesses with associated osteomyelitis, bacteraemia, endocarditis, keratitis, lymphadenitis, peritonitis, post-surgical infections, pulmonary infections and disseminated disease. Involvement of the central nervous system is rare, but meningitis may develop after trauma or surgery. The immunocompromised patient is at special risk for developing severe diseases, especially catheter-related infection with bacteraemia.

Type Strain

  • The type strain, which was recovered from a scalp wound, is W6705T =ATCC 49404T = DSM 44679T

References

  • Schinsky et al. 2004. Taxonomic variation in the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex: description of Mycobacterium boenickei sp. nov., Mycobacterium houstonense sp. nov., Mycobacterium neworleansense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium brisbanense sp. nov. and recognition of Mycobacterium porcinum from human clinical isolates. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1653-1667.


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