Mycobacterium chelonae

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Mycobacterium chelonae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. chelonae
Binomial name
Mycobacterium chelonae
Bergey et al. 1923, ATCC 35752

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Mycobacterium chelonae is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.

Causes

  • Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium, that is found all throughout the environment including sewage and tap water.
  • It can occasionally cause opportunistic infections of humans. It is grouped in Runyon group IV.
  • Type strain: strain CM 6388 = ATCC 35752 = CCUG 47445 = CIP 104535 = DSM 43804 = JCM 6388 = NCTC 946.

Epidemiology

  • On average, 2 cases of nonpulmonary M. chelonae infection are reported in South Australia each year.[1]

Treatment

Antimicrobial Regimen

  • 1. Localized infections [2]
  • 2. Disseminated or extensive disease
  • 2.1 monotherapy
  • 2.2 multidrug therapy
  • Preferred regimen: Clarithromycin 500 mg PO BID AND Tobramycin 5 mg IV/kg/day PO OR Imipenem 0.5-1 g IV q6h OR Linezolid 600 mg IV/PO BID for 4-8 weeks
  • Alternative regimen: Moxifloxacin 400 mg PO qd AND Linezolid 600 mg PO BID
  • Note (1): During initial treatment, multidrug therapy may prevent development of acquired resistance
  • Note (2): Total treatment duration is 6 months
  • 3. Keratitis (LASIK-related)

References

  1. Ivan, Mihaela; Dancer, Craig; Koehler, Ann P.; Hobby, Michaela; Lease, Chris (2013). "Mycobacterium chelonae Abscesses Associated with Biomesotherapy, Australia, 2008". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19 (9). doi:10.3201/eid1909.120898. PMC 3810901. PMID 23968779.
  2. Bartlett, John (2012). Johns Hopkins ABX guide : diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1449625580.



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