Muscle tone

Jump to: navigation, search
Bodybuilder showing highly developed muscles.

WikiDoc Resources for Muscle tone

Articles

Most recent articles on Muscle tone

Most cited articles on Muscle tone

Review articles on Muscle tone

Articles on Muscle tone in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Muscle tone

Images of Muscle tone

Photos of Muscle tone

Podcasts & MP3s on Muscle tone

Videos on Muscle tone

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Muscle tone

Bandolier on Muscle tone

TRIP on Muscle tone

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Muscle tone at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Muscle tone

Clinical Trials on Muscle tone at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Muscle tone

NICE Guidance on Muscle tone

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Muscle tone

CDC on Muscle tone

Books

Books on Muscle tone

News

Muscle tone in the news

Be alerted to news on Muscle tone

News trends on Muscle tone

Commentary

Blogs on Muscle tone

Definitions

Definitions of Muscle tone

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Muscle tone

Discussion groups on Muscle tone

Patient Handouts on Muscle tone

Directions to Hospitals Treating Muscle tone

Risk calculators and risk factors for Muscle tone

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Muscle tone

Causes & Risk Factors for Muscle tone

Diagnostic studies for Muscle tone

Treatment of Muscle tone

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Muscle tone

International

Muscle tone en Espanol

Muscle tone en Francais

Business

Muscle tone in the Marketplace

Patents on Muscle tone

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Muscle tone


Overview

Muscle tone (aka residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles. It helps maintain posture, and it declines during REM sleep. Note that muscular tone is not defined as muscular shaping or the aspect of general Human physical appearance.

Purpose

Unconscious nerve impulses maintain the muscles in a partially contracted state. If a sudden pull or stretch occurs, the body responds by automatically increasing the muscle's tension, a reflex which helps guard against danger as well as helping to maintain balance.

The presence of near-continuous innervation makes it clear that tonus describes a "default" or "steady state" condition. There is, for the most part, no actual "rest state" insofar as activation is concerned.

In terms of skeletal muscle, both the extensor muscle and flexor muscle use the term tonus to refer to the "at rest" or normal enervation that maintains current positions of bones.

Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle, although not directly connected to the skeleton, also have tonus in the sense that although their contractions are not matched with those of antagonist muscles; their non-contractive state is characterized by (sometimes random) enervation.

Pathological tonus

Physical disorders can result in abnormally low (hypotonia) or high (hypertonia) muscle tone. Another form of hypertonia is Paratonia, which is associated with dementia.

Tonus in surgery

In ophthalmology, tonus may be a central consideration in eye surgery, as in the manipulation of extraocular muscles to repair strabismus. Tonicity aberrations are associated with many diseases of the eye (e.g. Adie syndrome).

References

External links


Linked-in.jpg