Monocytosis

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Monocytosis
Monocytosis.jpg
Bone marrow smear from a patient with a 23-month history of CML who developed a slight monocytosis, increased blasts in the blood and marrow, and an increase in marrow eosinophils with abnormal basophilic-staining granules. Cytogenetic studies showed cells with both a t(9;22) and an inv (16) abnormality. (Wright-Giemsa stain).
Image courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology
ICD-10 D72.8
ICD-9 288.8
DiseasesDB 22713

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

Monocytosis is an increase in the number of circulating monocytes. In humans, 950/μL is regarded as at the upper limit of normal; monocyte counts above this level are regarded as monocytosis. [1] Monocytes are white blood cells that give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells in the immune system.

Historical Perspective

  • [Disease name] was first discovered by [scientist name], a [nationality + occupation], in [year] during/following [event].
  • In [year], [gene] mutations were first identified in the pathogenesis of [disease name].
  • In [year], the first [discovery] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].

Classification

  • [Disease name] may be classified according to [classification method] into [number] subtypes/groups:
  • [group1]
  • [group2]
  • [group3]
  • Other variants of [disease name] include [disease subtype 1], [disease subtype 2], and [disease subtype 3].

Pathophysiology

  • The pathogenesis of [disease name] is characterized by [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3].
  • The [gene name] gene/Mutation in [gene name] has been associated with the development of [disease name], involving the [molecular pathway] pathway.
  • On gross pathology, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, [feature1], [feature2], and [feature3] are characteristic findings of [disease name].

Causes

By Organ System

Cardiovascular Bacterial Endocarditis
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Rifaximin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Sarcoidosis
Environmental Brucellosis, Kala-azar, Listeriosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Gastroenterologic Cirrhosis, Crohn's disease, Infectious hepatitis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Sarcoidosis, Ulcerative colitis
Genetic Gaucher's Disease, Kostmann syndrome, Sarcoidosis
Hematologic Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Benign familial neutropenia, Chronic myeloid leukaemia, Chronic neutropenia, Cyclical neutropenia, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, Hodgkin lymphoma, Kostmann syndrome, Lymphoproliferative disease, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myeloma, Myeloproliferative disease, Polyarteritis nodosa, Recovery from neutropenia, Visceral leishmaniasis
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Bacterial Endocarditis, Brucellosis, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Zoster Virus, Infectious Endocarditis, Infectious hepatitis, Kala-azar, Listeriosis, Malaria, Mononeucleosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Syphillis, Trypanosomiasis, Whooping cough
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Rheumatoid arthritis
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Gaucher's Disease, Lipid storage disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Chronic myeloid leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, Myeloproliferative disease, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Other malignant lymphomas
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Whooping cough
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Crohn's disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Polyarteritis nodosa, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sarcoidosis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Ulcerative colitis
Sexual Syphillis
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Kala-azar

In Alphabetical Order

Differentiating [disease name] from other Diseases

  • [Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as:
  • [Differential dx1]
  • [Differential dx2]
  • [Differential dx3]

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number or range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number or range] cases per 100,000 individuals in [location].

Age

  • Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among patients aged [age range] years old.
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among [elderly patients/young patients/children].

Gender

  • [Disease name] affects men and women equally.
  • [Gender 1] are more commonly affected with [disease name] than [gender 2].
  • The [gender 1] to [Gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.

Race

  • There is no racial predilection for [disease name].
  • [Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race.
  • [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].

Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] are [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

  • The majority of patients with [disease name] remain asymptomatic for [duration/years].
  • Early clinical features include [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • If left untreated, [#%] of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
  • Prognosis is generally [excellent/good/poor], and the [1/5/10­year mortality/survival rate] of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#%].

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met:
  • [criterion 1]
  • [criterion 2]
  • [criterion 3]
  • [criterion 4]

Symptoms

  • [Disease name] is usually asymptomatic.
  • Symptoms of [disease name] may include the following:
  • [symptom 1]
  • [symptom 2]
  • [symptom 3]
  • [symptom 4]
  • [symptom 5]
  • [symptom 6]

Physical Examination

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance].
  • Physical examination may be remarkable for:
  • [finding 1]
  • [finding 2]
  • [finding 3]
  • [finding 4]
  • [finding 5]
  • [finding 6]

Laboratory Findings

  • There are no specific laboratory findings associated with [disease name].
  • A [positive/negative] [test name] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • An [elevated/reduced] concentration of [serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other] [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • Other laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].

Imaging Findings

  • There are no [imaging study] findings associated with [disease name].
  • [Imaging study 1] is the imaging modality of choice for [disease name].
  • On [imaging study 1], [disease name] is characterized by [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • [Imaging study 2] may demonstrate [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • [Disease name] may also be diagnosed using [diagnostic study name].
  • Findings on [diagnostic study name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  • There is no treatment for [disease name]; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.
  • The mainstay of therapy for [disease name] is [medical therapy 1] and [medical therapy 2].
  • [Medical therapy 1] acts by [mechanism of action 1].
  • Response to [medical therapy 1] can be monitored with [test/physical finding/imaging] every [frequency/duration].

Surgery

  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] in conjunction with [chemotherapy/radiation] is the most common approach to the treatment of [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] can only be performed for patients with [disease stage] [disease name].

Prevention

  • There are no primary preventive measures available for [disease name].
  • Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].
  • Once diagnosed and successfully treated, patients with [disease name] are followed-up every [duration]. Follow-up testing includes [test 1], [test 2], and [test 3].

References

de:Monozytose

sq:Monocitoza



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