Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

(Redirected from Molecular imaging)
Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Articles

Most recent articles on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Most cited articles on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Review articles on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Articles on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Images of Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Photos of Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Podcasts & MP3s on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Videos on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Bandolier on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

TRIP on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Clinical Trials on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

NICE Guidance on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

CDC on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Books

Books on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

News

Molecular imaging and related novel technologies in the news

Be alerted to news on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

News trends on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Commentary

Blogs on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Definitions

Definitions of Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Discussion groups on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Patient Handouts on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Directions to Hospitals Treating Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Risk calculators and risk factors for Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Causes & Risk Factors for Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Diagnostic studies for Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Treatment of Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

International

Molecular imaging and related novel technologies en Espanol

Molecular imaging and related novel technologies en Francais

Business

Molecular imaging and related novel technologies in the Marketplace

Patents on Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Molecular imaging and related novel technologies

Editors-in-Chief: Eric A. Osborn, M.D., Ph.D. [1] and Eli V. Gelfand, M.D. [2] (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School)


Introduction

Molecular imaging utilizes specialized probes and non-invasive imaging techniques to identify biological processes in vivo by targeting specific molecules or cell types. Probes are being developed to detect a wide range of cardiovascular disease states including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. Advancements in molecular biology, chemistry, bioengineering, and nanotechnology are stimulating a rapid growth in molecular imaging research and clinical trials.

Requirements

  • Imaging system with detectors able to localize the desired probe
  • High-affinity ligand that recognizes the intended molecular or cellular target

General principles

Ideal ligand properties

  • High sensitivity and specificity for the target
  • Kinetics that allow rapid detection
  • Utilize amplification strategies to boost the signal
  • Ability to be easily conjugated to signal detection compounds and maintains functionality
  • Biocompatible and non-toxic

Choice of ligand

  • Pro:
    • Involved in processes with a strong clinical or biological interest
    • Molecules with signal amplification potential (internalizing receptors, enzymes, multivalency)
    • Small size (antibody fragments, peptides, carbohydrates, nanoparticles)
  • Con:
    • Inaccessible molecules
    • Low-abundance (DNA, RNA, poorly expressed proteins)

Imaging modalities

  • Nuclear
    • Positron emission tomography (PET)
    • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Optical
    • Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF)
    • Fluorescence-mediated tomography
  • Ultrasound

Probes

PET

18FDG

  • Identify: Sites of glucose metabolism
  • Target molecule: Glucose transporter-1, hexokinase
  • Target cell: Predominately macrophages (atherosclerotic lesions)
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay (positron emitter, t½ 110 minutes)

SPECT

99mTc-annexin

  • Identify: Apoptosis/macrophages/intraplaque hemorrhage
  • Target: Annexin
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay

99mTc-interleukin-2

  • Identify: Sites of inflammation
  • Target: Lymphocytes
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay

99mTc-apcitide

  • Identify: Thrombosis
  • Target: Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay

99mTc-NC100692

  • Identify: Angiogenesis
  • Target: Integrin αVβ3
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay

111indium-oxine

  • Target: Stem cells
  • Mechanism: Radioisotope decay

MRI

Gadolinium-based

  • Receptor targeting of specific cells/proteins
  • High molecular weight to limit extracellular diffusion
  • Albumin-bound to remain intraluminal
  • Lipophilic agents (gadofluorine)

Ultrasmall particles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIOs)

  • Identify: Sites of inflammation
  • Target: Macrophages (also some interaction with smooth muscle and endothelial cells)
  • Mechanism: Induce signal reductions via susceptibility effects on T2- and T2*-weighted images
  • Characteristics: 3 nm size

Paramagnetic nanoparticles

  • Identify: Angiogenesis
  • Target: Integrin αVβ3

EP-2104R

  • Identify: Thrombosis
  • Target: Fibrin

NIRF

Prosense

  • Identify: Sites of inflammation
  • Target: Cysteine protease activity
  • Mechanism: Fluorescence activated by substrate cleavage

Clinical applications

Atherosclerosis

  • USPIOs
  • 18FDG
  • 99mTc-annexin
  • 99mTc-interleukin-2
  • Prosense
  • Paramagnetic nanoparticles

Thrombosis

  • 99mTc-apcitide
  • EP-2104R

Myocardial infarction

  • 99mTc-NC100692
  • 111indium-oxine
  • Magnetized nanoparticles (MNP)

Further online resources

References

<biblio> #ref1 pmid=17724271 </biblio>



Linked-in.jpg