Microalbuminuria

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Name of Symptom/Sign:
Microalbuminuria
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ICD-10
ICD-9 791.0
MedlinePlus 003591

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List of terms related to Microalbuminuria

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview

Microalbuminuria occurs when the kidney leaks small amounts of albumin into the urine, in other words, when there is an abnormally high permeabilityTemplate:Dn for albumin in the renal glomerulus.

Diagnosis

The level of albumin protein produced by microalbuminuria cannot be detected by urine dipstick methods. A microalbumin urine test determines the presence of the albumin in urine. In a properly functioning body, albumin is not normally present in urine because it is retained in the bloodstream by the kidneys.

Microalbuminuria is diagnosed either from a 24-hour urine collection (between 30-300 mg/24 hours) or, more commonly, from elevated concentrations in a spot sample (30 to 300 mg/L). Both must be measured on at least two of three measurements over a two- to three-month period.[1]. An albumin level above these values is called "macroalbuminuria", or sometimes just albuminuria.

To compensate for variations in urine concentration in spot-check samples, it is more typical in the United Kingdom to compare the amount of albumin in the sample against its concentration of creatinine. This is termed the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR)[2] and microalbuminuria is defined as ACR ≥3.5 mg/mmol (female) or ≥2.5 mg/mmol(male),[3] or, with both substances measured by mass, as an ACR between 30 and 300 µg albumin/mg creatinine[4].

Significance

See also


References

  1. "Person—microalbumin level (measured), total micrograms per minute N[NNN].N". Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  2. PMID 10333950
  3. "Proteinuria". UK Renal Association. December 15, 2005. 
  4. clinlabnavigator.com > Test Interpretations Last Updated on Saturday, 19 June 2010
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417196

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