Metabolic syndrome epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2]

Overview

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies depending on the age and ethnicity of the population studied. But over the past few decades prevalence has increased many folds. It is higher in western countries, with advanced age and in certain races like Mexican Americans and African Americans.

Epidemiology and Demographics

United States

  • According to a 1999 - 2000 survey, prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults aged 20 years or older was found to be 32,000 per 100,000 compared to 22,000 per 100,000 in a survey done during year 1988 - 1994 [1].
  • There is a constant increase in prevalence of metabolic syndrome and more than 25% of US population meets the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.

International

  • The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is approximately 25% in European and Latin American countries [2].
  • Also, with westernization lifestyle and food habits there has been a constant increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Asian countries. However, the prevalence is still less compared to the western population (approximately 8-18%).

Age

  • Prevalence increases with age.
  • 2 out of 5 people above 60 years of age fall under the criteria of metabolic syndrome.
  • Increased prevalence in the pediatric population is attributed to increased incidence of obesity early in childhood.

Gender

Race

  • The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were defined initially for Caucasian population. However, these definitions are not uniform among different races.
  • Highest age - adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States was found to be in Native American patients, with nearly 60% of women and 45% of men aged 45 - 49 years met the ATP III criteria [4] (approximately 31.9%, 1999-2000 survey).
  • High prevalence is also seen in African Americans especially women.

References

  1. Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH (2004). "Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among u.s. Adults". Diabetes Care. 27 (10): 2444–9. PMID 15451914.
  2. Grundy SM (2008). "Metabolic syndrome pandemic". Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 28 (4): 629–36. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.151092. PMID 18174459.
  3. Bentley-Lewis R, Koruda K, Seely EW (2007). "The metabolic syndrome in women". Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 3 (10): 696–704. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0616. PMID 17893688.
  4. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH (2002). "Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". JAMA. 287 (3): 356–9. PMID 11790215.

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