Mesna (oral)

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Mesna (oral)
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Adeel Jamil, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Mesna (oral) is a cytoprotective agent that is FDA approved for the prophylaxis of ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Common adverse reactions include nausea, vomiting, constipation, leukopenia, fatigue, fever, anorexia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, diarrhea, asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, alopecia, and somnolence.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Ifosfamide-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis
  • MESNEX may be given on a fractionated dosing schedule of a single bolus injection followed by two oral administrations of MESNEX tablets as outlined below.
  • MESNEX injection is given as intravenous bolus injections in a dosage equal to 20% of the ifosfamide dosage (w/w) at the time of ifosfamide administration. MESNEX tablets are given orally in a dosage equal to 40% of the ifosfamide dose 2 and 6 hours after each dose of ifosfamide. The total daily dose of MESNEX is 100% of the ifosfamide dose. The recommended dosing schedule is outlined in Table 2.
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  • The efficacy and safety of this ratio of intravenous and oral MESNEX has not been established as being effective for daily doses of ifosfamide higher than 2 g/m2.
  • Patients who vomit within two hours of taking oral MESNEX should repeat the dose or receive intravenous MESNEX.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

Hemorrhagic cystitis, Cyclophosphamide-induced; Prophylaxis
  • Developed by: American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • Class of Recommendation: Class IIb
  • Strength of Evidence: Category B
  • Dosing Information
  • In the setting on stem cell transplantation, forced/saline diuresis or saline diuresis plus mesna is recommended.[1]

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Mesna (oral) in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Mesna (oral) in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Mesna (oral) in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Mesna (oral) in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • MESNEX is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to MESNEX or to any of the excipients.

Warnings

Precautions

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Dermatologic Toxicity
  • Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity
  • Benzyl alcohol, a preservative in MESNEX, has been associated with serious adverse reactions and death (including gasping syndrome) in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources when prescribing MESNEX (10.4 mg benzyl alcohol per mL). Neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of toxicity. Avoid use in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants.
  • Laboratory Test Interferences
  • False-Positive Urine Tests for Ketone Bodies
  • A false positive test for urinary ketones may arise in patients treated with MESNEX when using nitroprusside sodium-based urine tests (including dipstick tests). The addition of glacial acetic acid can be used to differentiate between a false positive result (cherry-red color that fades) and a true positive result (red-violet color that intensifies).
  • False-Negative Tests for Enzymatic CPK Activity
  • MESNEX may interfere with enzymatic creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) activity tests that use a thiol compound (e.g., N-acetylcysteine) for CPK reactiviation. This may result in a falsely low CPK level.
  • False-Positive Tests for Ascorbic Acid
  • MESNEX may cause false-positive reactions in Tillman’s reagent-based urine screening tests for ascorbic acid.
  • Use in Patients with a History of Adverse Reactions to Thiol Compounds
  • MESNEX is a thiol compound, i.e., a sulfhydryl (SH) group-containing organic compound. Hypersensitivity reactions to MESNEX and to amifostine, another thiol compound, have been reported. It is not clear whether patients who experienced an adverse reaction to a thiol compound are at increased risk for a hypersensitivity reaction to MESNEX.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
  • MESNEX adverse reaction data are available from four Phase 1 studies in which single intravenous doses of 600-1200 mg MESNEX Injection without concurrent chemotherapy were administered to a total of 53 healthy volunteers and single oral doses of 600-2400 mg of MESNEX Tablets were administered to a total of 82 healthy volunteers. The most frequently reported side effects (observed in two or more healthy volunteers) for healthy volunteers receiving single doses of MESNEX Injection alone were headache, injection site reactions, flushing, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, somnolence, diarrhea, anorexia, fever, pharyngitis, hyperesthesia, influenza-like symptoms, and coughing. In two Phase 1 multiple-dose studies where healthy volunteers received MESNEX Tablets alone or intravenous MESNEX followed by repeated doses of MESNEX Tablets, flatulence and rhinitis were reported. In addition, constipation was reported by healthy volunteers who had received repeated doses of intravenous MESNEX.
  • Additional adverse reactions in healthy volunteers receiving MESNEX alone included injection site reactions, abdominal pain/colic, epigastric pain/burning, mucosal irritation, lightheadedness, back pain, arthralgia, myalgia, conjunctivitis, nasal congestion, rigors, paresthesia, photophobia, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, extremity pain, malaise, chest pain, dysuria, pleuritic pain, dry mouth, dyspnea, and hyperhidrosis. In healthy volunteers, MESNEX was commonly associated with a rapid (within 24 hours) decrease in lymphocyte count, which was generally reversible within one week of administration.
  • Because MESNEX is used in combination with ifosfamide or ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy regimens, it is difficult to distinguish the adverse reactions which may be due to MESNEX from those caused by the concomitantly administered cytotoxic agents.
  • Adverse reactions reasonably associated with MESNEX administered intravenously and orally in four controlled studies in which patients received ifosfamide or ifosfamide-containing regimens are presented in Table 3.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse reactions have been reported in the postmarketing experience of patients receiving MESNEX in combination with ifosfamide or similar drugs, making it difficult to distinguish the adverse reactions which may be due to MESNEX from those caused by the concomitantly administered cytotoxic agents. Because these reactions are reported from a population of unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made.
Cardiovascular

Hypertension

Gastrointestinal

Dysgeusia

Hepatobiliary

Hepatitis

Nervous System

Convulsion

Respiratory

Hemoptysis

Drug Interactions

  • No clinical drug interaction studies have been conducted with MESNEX.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category B
  • There are no studies of MESNEX in pregnant women. Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at oral doses approximately 10 times the maximum recommended total daily intravenous-oral-oral human dose on a body surface area basis (1000 mg/kg in rabbits and 2000 mg/kg in rats) revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to mesna. The incidence of malformations in human pregnancies has not been established for MESNEX. All pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2 to 4% for major malformations and 15 to 20% for pregnancy loss. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Mesna (oral) in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Mesna (oral) during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether mesna or dimesna is excreted in human milk. Benzyl alcohol present in maternal serum is likely to cross into human milk and may be orally absorbed by a nursing infant. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants from MESNEX, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness of MESNEX in pediatric patients have not been established. MESNEX contains benzyl alcohol (10.4 mg benzyl alcohol per mL) which has been associated with serious adverse reactions and death in pediatric patients. The "gasping syndrome," (characterized by central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis and gasping respirations) has been associated with benzyl alcohol dosages >99 mg/kg/day in neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants. Additional symptoms may include gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which toxicity may occur is not known. Neonates, premature, and low-birth weight infants, as well as patients receiving high dosages, may be more likely to develop toxicity. Practitioners administering this and other medications containing benzyl alcohol should consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources.

Geriatic Use

  • Clinical studies of MESNEX did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. The ratio of ifosfamide to MESNEX should remain unchanged.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Mesna (oral) with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Mesna (oral) with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Mesna (oral) in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Mesna (oral) in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Mesna (oral) in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Mesna (oral) in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral
  • Intravenous

Monitoring

  • Maintain adequate hydration and sufficient urinary output, as required for ifosfamide treatment, and monitor urine for the presence of hematuria. If severe hematuria develops when MESNEX is given according to the recommended dosage schedule, dosage reductions or discontinuation of ifosfamide therapy may be required.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Mesna (oral) in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

  • There is no known antidote for MESNEX.
  • In a clinical trial, 11 patients received intravenous MESNEX 10 mg/kg to 66 mg/kg per day for 3 to 5 days. Patients also received ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide. Adverse reactions included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. An increased rate of these adverse reactions has also been found in oxazaphosphorine-treated patients receiving ≥80 mg MESNEX per kg per day intravenously compared with patients receiving lower doses or hydration treatment only.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Mesna (oral) in the drug label.

Pharmacology

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Mesna (oral)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
sodium 2-sulfanylethanesulfonate
Identifiers
CAS number 19767-45-4
ATC code R05CB05 V03AF01 (WHO)
PubChem 29769
Chemical data
Formula C2H5NaO3S2 
Mol. mass 164.181 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 45–79% (Oral)
Metabolism Oxidised in circulation
Half life 0.36–8.3 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B1(AU) B(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes Oral, intravenous

Mechanism of Action

  • Mesna reacts chemically with the urotoxic ifosfamide metabolites, acrolein and 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide, resulting in their detoxification. The first step in the detoxification process is the binding of mesna to 4-hydroxy-ifosfamide forming a non-urotoxic 4-sulfoethylthioifosfamide. Mesna also binds to the double bonds of acrolein and to other urotoxic metabolites and inhibits their effects on the bladder.

Structure

  • MESNEX is a detoxifying agent to inhibit the hemorrhagic cystitis induced by ifosfamide. The active ingredient, mesna, is a synthetic sulfhydryl compound designated as sodium-2-mercaptoethane sulfonate with a molecular formula of C2H5NaO3S2 and a molecular weight of 164.18. Its structural formula is as follows:
  • HS–CH2–CH2SO3–Na+
  • MESNEX (mesna) injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, aqueous solution of clear and colorless appearance in clear glass multidose vials for intravenous administration. MESNEX injection contains 100 mg/mL mesna, 0.25 mg/mL edetate disodium and sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. MESNEX Injection multidose vials also contain 10.4 mg/mL of benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The solution has a pH range of 7.5-8.5.
  • MESNEX (mesna) tablets are white, oblong, scored biconvex film-coated tablets with the imprint M4. They contain 400 mg mesna. The excipients are calcium phosphate, cornstarch, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, simethicone, and titanium dioxide.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Mesna (oral) in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Absorption
  • Following oral administration, peak plasma concentrations were reached within 1.5 to 4 hours and 3 to 7 hours for free mesna and total mesna (mesna plus dimesna and mixed disulfides), respectively. Oral bioavailability averaged 58% (range 45 to 71%) for free mesna and 89% (range 74 to 104%) for total mesna based on plasma AUC data from 8 healthy volunteers who received 1200 mg oral or intravenous doses.
  • Food does not affect the urinary availability of orally administered MESNEX.
  • Distribution
  • Mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd) for mesna is 0.652 ± 0.242 L/kg after intravenous administration which suggests distribution to total body water (plasma, extracellular fluid, and intracellular water).
  • Metabolism
  • Analogous to the physiological cysteine-cystine system, mesna is rapidly oxidized to its major metabolite, mesna disulfide (dimesna). Plasma concentrations of mesna exceed those of dimesna after oral or intravenous administration.
  • Excretion
  • Following intravenous administration of a single 800 mg dose, approximately 32% and 33% of the administered dose was eliminated in the urine in 24 hours as mesna and dimesna, respectively. Mean plasma elimination half-lives of mesna and dimesna are 0.36 hours and 1.17 hours, respectively. Mesna has a plasma clearance of 1.23 L/h/kg.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of mesna.
  • Mesna was not genotoxic in the in vitro Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, the in vitro mammalian lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
  • No studies on male or female fertility were conducted. No signs of male or female reproductive organ toxicity were seen in 6-month oral rat studies (≤ 2000 mg/kg/day) or 29-week oral dog studies (520 mg/kg/day) at doses approximately 10-fold higher than the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis.

Clinical Studies

Intravenous MESNEX
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis produced by ifosfamide is dose dependent (Table 4). At a dose of 1.2 g/m2 ifosfamide administered daily for 5 days, 16 to 26% of the patients who received conventional uroprophylaxis (high fluid intake, alkalinization of the urine, and the administration of diuretics) developed hematuria (>50 RBC per hpf or macrohematuria) (Studies 1, 2, and 3). In contrast, none of the patients who received mesna injection together with this dose of ifosfamide developed hematuria (Studies 3 and 4). In two randomized studies, (Studies 5 and 6), higher doses of ifosfamide, from 2 g/m2 to 4 g/m2 administered for 3 to 5 days, produced hematuria in 31 to 100% of the patients. When MESNEX was administered together with these doses of ifosfamide, the incidence of hematuria was less than 7%.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Oral MESNEX
  • Clinical studies comparing recommended intravenous and oral MESNEX dosing regimens demonstrated incidences of grade 3 to 4 hematuria of <5%. Study 7 was an open label, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing three intravenous doses with an initial intravenous dose followed by two oral doses of MESNEX in patients with cancer treated with ifosfamide at a dose of 1.2 g/m2 to 2.0 g/m2 for 3 to 5 days. Study 8 was a randomized, multicenter study in cancer patients receiving ifosfamide at 2.0 g/m2 for 5 days. In both studies, development of grade 3 or 4 hematuria was the primary efficacy endpoint. The percent of patients developing hematuria in each of these studies is presented in Table 5.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

How Supplied

  • MESNEX (mesna) injection 100 mg/mL
  • NDC 0338-1305-01 1 g Multidose Vial, Box of 1 vial of 10 mL
  • NDC 0338-1305-03 1 g Multidose Vial, Box of 10 vials of 10 mL
  • Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).
  • MESNEX (mesna) tablets
  • NDC 67108-3565-9 400 mg scored tablets packaged in box of 10 tablets
  • Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Mesna (oral) Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

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Patient Counseling Information

  • Advise the patient to discontinue MESNEX and seek immediate medical attention if any signs or symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction, including systemic anaphylactic reactions occur.
  • Advise the patient to take MESNEX at the exact time and in the exact amount as prescribed. Advise the patient to contact their healthcare provider if they vomit within 2 hours of taking oral MESNEX, or if they miss a dose of oral MESNEX.
  • MESNEX does not prevent hemorrhagic cystitis in all patients nor does it prevent or alleviate any of the other adverse reactions or toxicities associated with ifosfamide. Advise the patient to report to their healthcare provider if his/her urine has turned a pink or red color.
  • Advise the patient to drink 1 to 2 liters of fluid each day during MESNEX therapy.
  • Advise the patient that Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and bullous and ulcerative skin and mucosal reactions have occurred with MESNEX. Advise the patient to report to their healthcare provider if signs and symptoms of these syndromes occur.
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Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Mesna (oral) interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • mesna® — mesalamine®[3]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Hensley ML, Hagerty KL, Kewalramani T, Green DM, Meropol NJ, Wasserman TH; et al. (2009). "American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008 clinical practice guideline update: use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy protectants". J Clin Oncol. 27 (1): 127–45. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.17.2627. PMID 19018081.
  2. "MESNEX mesna tablet, film coated".
  3. "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)

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