Mesenteric ischemia risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD [2]

Overview

Risk factors causing mesenteric ischemia can be divided based on the underlying etiology. Conditions posing a significant risk towards the development of mesenteric ischemia either by interrupting the blood flow through the artery or vein supplying the small intestine (e.g thromboembolism) or by reducing the blood supply (e.g. vasoconstriction). Also, there are certain life-style related risk factors which predominantly cause mesenteric ischemia in the older age group.

Risk Factors

  • The following conditions pose a significant risk towards the development of mesenteric ischemia either by interrupting the blood flow through the artery or vein supplying the small intestine (e.g.thromboemboli) or by reducing the blood supply (e.g. vasoconstriction). Also, there are certain life-style related risk factors which predominantly cause mesenteric ischemia in the older age group.[1][2][3]
Risk factors
Occlusive Embolic Atrial fibrillation
Cardiac arrhythmia
Valvular heart disease
Infective endocarditis
Recent myocardial infarction
Ventricular aneurysm
Aortic atherosclerosis
Thrombotic Advanced age
Low cardiac output states
Peripheral arterial disease
Traumatic injury
Inherited thrombophilia-
Acquired thrombophilia- malignancy, oral contraceptives intake.
Non-occlusive Heart failure
Aortic insufficiency
Septic shock
Vasoconstrictive drugs:
Cocaine abuse or ergot poisoning
Hemodialysis
Other factors Lifestyle related risk factors:[7]

Less common risk factors:

Common risk factors in the development of mesenteric ischemia include:

Occlusive causes:

(a) Embolic causes:[1]

(b) Thrombotic causes:[2]

Non-occlusive causes:[3]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Fitzgerald T, Kim D, Karakozis S, Alam H, Provido H, Kirkpatrick J (2000). "Visceral ischemia after cardiopulmonary bypass". Am Surg. 66 (7): 623–6. PMID 10917470.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Martinelli I, Mannucci PM, De Stefano V, Taioli E, Rossi V, Crosti F; et al. (1998). "Different risks of thrombosis in four coagulation defects associated with inherited thrombophilia: a study of 150 families". Blood. 92 (7): 2353–8. PMID 9746774.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Acosta S, Ogren M, Sternby NH, Bergqvist D, Björck M (2006). "Fatal nonocclusive mesenteric ischaemia: population-based incidence and risk factors". J Intern Med. 259 (3): 305–13. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01613.x. PMID 16476108.
  4. Endean ED, Barnes SL, Kwolek CJ, Minion DJ, Schwarcz TH, Mentzer RM (2001). "Surgical management of thrombotic acute intestinal ischemia". Ann Surg. 233 (6): 801–8. PMC 1421323. PMID 11407335.
  5. Corcos, Olivier; Nuzzo, Alexandre (2013). "Gastro-Intestinal Vascular Emergencies". Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 27 (5): 709–725. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2013.08.006. ISSN 1521-6918.
  6. Veenstra RP, ter Steege RW, Geelkerken RH, Huisman AB, Kolkman JJ (2012). "The cardiovascular risk profile of atherosclerotic gastrointestinal ischemia is different from other vascular beds". Am J Med. 125 (4): 394–8. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.09.013. PMID 22305578.
  7. Dahlke, M.H.; Asshoff, L.; Popp, F.C.; Feuerbach, S.; Lang, S.A.; Renner, P.; Slowik, P.; Stoeltzing, O.; Schlitt, H.J.; Piso, P. (2008). "Mesenteric Ischemia – Outcome after Surgical Therapy in 83 Patients". Digestive Surgery. 25 (3): 213–219. doi:10.1159/000140692. ISSN 1421-9883.

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