Mesenteric ischemia natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD [2]

Overview

If left untreated, 99% of patients with mesenteric ischemia may progress to develop intestinal gangrene, septic shock and subsequently multiorgan failure. The progressive phases of mesenteric ischemia include hyperactive phase, paralytic phase and shock phase. The prognosis mostly depends on prompt diagnosis and timely medical/surgical intervention depending on the underlying etiology. Poor prognostic factors include signs such as tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension and altered mental status. Common complications of mesenteric ischemia include bowel infarction, perforation, sepsis, peritonitis, septic shock, and multiorgan failure.

Natural History

Progressive phases of mesenteric ischemia include:

(a) Hyperactive phase:
  • Hyperactive phase is that phase of mesenteric ischemia in which the main symptoms are excruciating abdominal pain and the passage of bloody stools.
  • Many patients get better and do not progress beyond this phase if treated in time.
(b) Paralytic phase:
  • Paralytic phase follows if ischemia continues.
  • In this phase, the abdominal pain becomes more widespread, the abdomen becomes tender to touch, and bowel motility decreases, resulting in abdominal bloating, no further bloody stools, and absent bowel sounds on exam.
(c) Shock phase:

Prognosis

  • Mesenteric ischemia is difficult to diagnose.[3]
  • The prognosis mostly depends on prompt diagnosis and timely medical/surgical intervention depending on the underlying etiology.[4]
  • Generally, the prognosis is poor when there is delay in the treatment, ranging from 0% to 40%.[5]
  • In case of occlusive type of acute mesenteric ischemia, mortality can be up to 90% without surgical intervention.[6][7]
Type of mesenteric ischemia Survival rate Mortality rate
Arterial embolism 41% 54%
Arterial thrombosis 38% 77%
Venous thrombosis 87% 32%
Poor prognostic factors
Signs and symptoms Signs of shock and dehydration:

Signs of atherosclerosis:

Laboratory findings

Prognostic indicators of mesenteric ischemia:[9]

Complications

References

  1. Boley, SJ, Brandt, LJ, Veith, FJ. Ischemic disorders of the intestines. Curr Probl Surg 1978; 15:1.
  2. Hunter G, Guernsey J (1988). "Mesenteric ischemia". Med Clin North Am. 72 (5): 1091–115. PMID 3045452.
  3. Klempnauer J, Grothues F, Bektas H, Pichlmayr R (1997). "Long-term results after surgery for acute mesenteric ischemia". Surgery. 121 (3): 239–43. PMID 9068664.
  4. Meyer T, Klein P, Schweiger H, Lang W (1998). "[How can the prognosis of acute mesenteric artery ischemia be improved? Results of a retrospective analysis]". Zentralbl Chir. 123 (3): 230–4. PMID 9586181.
  5. Endean ED, Barnes SL, Kwolek CJ, Minion DJ, Schwarcz TH, Mentzer RM (2001). "Surgical management of thrombotic acute intestinal ischemia". Ann Surg. 233 (6): 801–8. PMC 1421323. PMID 11407335.
  6. Kärkkäinen, Jussi M.; Acosta, Stefan (2017). "Acute mesenteric ischemia (part I) – Incidence, etiologies, and how to improve early diagnosis". Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. 31 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2016.10.018. ISSN 1521-6918.
  7. Ryer EJ, Kalra M, Oderich GS, Duncan AA, Gloviczki P, Cha S; et al. (2012). "Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia". J Vasc Surg. 55 (6): 1682–9. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2011.12.017. PMID 22503176.
  8. Salamone G, Raspanti C, Licari L, Falco N, Rotolo G, Augello G; et al. (2017). "Non-Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia (NOMI) in Parkinson's disease: case report". G Chir. 38 (2): 71–76. PMC 5509387. PMID 28691670.
  9. Yılmaz EM, Cartı EB (2017). "Prognostic factors in acute mesenteric ischemia and evaluation with Mannheim Peritonitis Index and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio". Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 23 (4): 301–305. doi:10.5505/tjtes.2016.00701. PMID 28762450.

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