Mental retardation risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [2]

Overview

Risk factors for mental retardation include genetic syndromes, hypoxic ischemic injury, and seizure disorders among others.[1]

Risk Factors

  • Genetic syndromes (e.g., sequence variations or copy number variants involving one or more genes; chromosomal disorders)
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Brain malformations
  • Maternal disease (including placental disease)
  • Environmental influences (e.g., alcohol, other drugs, toxins, teratogens)
  • Variety of labor and delivery-related events leading toneonatal encephalopathy
  • Hypoxic ischemic injury
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Infections
  • Demyelinating disorders
  • Seizure disorders (e.g., infantile spasms)
  • Severe and chronic social deprivation
  • Toxic metabolic syndromes and intoxications(e.g., lead, mercury)[2]

References

  1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 0890425558.
  2. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 0890425558.

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