Meningoencephalitis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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Overview

Meningoencephalitis is a medical condition that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain. There are many causative organisms, including both viral and bacterial pathogens and parasitic microbes, which can give rise to meningoencephalitis along with other causative agents (such as certain antibodies). The disease is associated with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity.

Pathophysiology

Microscopic Pathology

Mucormycosis meningoencephalitis

Causes

Causative organisms include protozoans, viral and bacterial pathogens.

Common Causes

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Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Kawasaki disease
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Behcet disease
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat Cholesteatoma
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Familial histiocytic reticulosis, Hemophagocytic reticulosis 
Hematologic Amyloid beta peptide protein antibodies, Biotinidase deficiency , Familial histiocytic reticulosis, Granulomatous meningoencephalitis, Hemophagocytic reticulosis 
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Acanthamoeba, Actinomycosis, Angiostrongyliasis, Arboviral encephalitis, Bacteroides, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Bartonella infections , Bartonellosis, Campylobacter fetus, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, Chagas disease , Chandipura virus, Colorado tick fever, Cryptococcosis , Eastern equine encephalitis, Ehrlichiosis , Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterovirus 71, Enterovirus antenatal infection, Enterovirus, Epstein-barr virus, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Herpes simplex virus, Hiv, Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, Japanese encephalitis, Jc virus, Klebsiella sp, Kumlinge virus encephalitis, Kunjin virus, Leptospirosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Louping ill, Lyme disease, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Measles, Mumps, Murray valley encephalitis virus, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Naegleria fowleri, Neisseria meningitidis, Nipah virus, Pneumococcus, Pontiac fever, Powassan encephalitis virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Queensland tick typhus, Rabies, Rickettsia prowazekii, Rift valley fever, Rubella congenital syndrome , Salmonella typhi, Sappinia diploidea, Schistosoma japonicum, Secondary syphilis, St louis encephalitis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus group b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Syphilis, Tick-borne encephalitis, Tick-borne meningoencephalitis, Toxoplasma gondii , Toxoplasmosis , Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosomiasis , Tuberculosis, Varicella-zoster virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, West african trypanosomiasis , West nile virus, Western equine encephalitis, Yersinia pestis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Skull fracture
Neurologic Arboviral encephalitis, Aseptic meningitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Kumlinge virus encephalitis, Murray valley encephalitis virus, Neisseria meningitidis, Powassan encephalitis virus, Smith disease , St louis encephalitis, Tick-borne encephalitis, Tick-borne meningoencephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Granulomatous meningoencephalitis
Ophthalmologic Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Behcet disease, Kawasaki disease, Systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual Hiv, Secondary syphilis, Syphilis
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Bacterial

Viral

Other/multiple

Protozoal

Ameobic pathogens exist as free-living protozoans. Nevertheless, these pathogens cause rare and uncommon CNS infections. N. fowleri produces primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The symptoms of PAM are indistinguishable from acute bacterial meningitis. Other amebae cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), which is a more subacute and can even a non-symptomatic chronic infection. Ameobic meningoencephalitis can mimic a brain abscess, aseptic or chronic meningitis, or CNS malignancy.[5]

Prognosis

The disease is associated with high rates of mortality and severe morbidity.

Related Chapters

References

  1. Bruyn HB, Sexton HM, Brainerd HD (1957). "Mumps meningoencephalitis; a clinical review of 119 cases with one death". Calif Med. 86 (3): 153–60. PMC 1512024. PMID 13404512. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Newton, PJ; Newsholme, W; Brink, NS; Manji, H; Williams, IG; Miller, RF (2002). "Acute meningoencephalitis and meningitis due to primary HIV infection". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 325 (7374): 1225–7. PMC 1124692. PMID 12446542.
  3. Del Saz, SV; Sued, O; Falcó, V; Agüero, F; Crespo, M; Pumarola, T; Curran, A; Gatell, JM; Pahissa, A (2008). "Acute meningoencephalitis due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in 13 patients: clinical description and follow-up". Journal of neurovirology. 14 (6): 474–9. doi:10.1080/13550280802195367. PMID 19037815.
  4. Orgogozo JM, Gilman S, Dartigues JF; et al. (2003-07-08). "Subacute meningoencephalitis in a subset of patients with AD after Aß42 immunization". Neurology. 61 (1): 46–54. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000073623.84147.A8. PMID 12847155. Retrieved 2008-05-01.
  5. Amebic Meningoencephalitis at eMedicine

ca:Meningoencefalitis



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