Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral)

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Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral)
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Deepika Beereddy, MBBS [2]

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Black Box Warning

WARNINGS CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
WARNINGS

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS:

  • Estrogens with progestins should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Disorders and Dementia.)
  • The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) relative to placebo. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Disorders and Malignant Neoplasms, Breast Cancer.)
  • The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of the WHI study, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with daily CE 0.625 mg combined with MPA 2.5 mg, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Dementia, and PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use.)
  • In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and MPA and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.

Overview

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) is a contraceptive agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of secondary amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as fibroids or uterine cancer and to reduce the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women receiving daily oral conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg tablets.. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include injection site reaction, weight gain, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, feeling nervous, amenorrhea, disorder of menstruation, menstrual spotting, reduced libido, fatigue.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Abnormal uterine bleeding unrelated to menstrual cycle, Hormonal imbalance-induced
  • Dosing Information
  • Beginning on the calculated 16th or 21st day of the menstrual cycle, 5 or 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate may be given daily for 5 to 10 days. To produce an optimum secretory transformation of an endometrium that has been adequately primed with either endogenous or exogenous estrogen, 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for 10 days beginning on the 16th day of the cycle is suggested. Progestin withdrawal bleeding usually occurs within three to seven days after discontinuing therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Patients with a past history of recurrent episodes of abnormal uterine bleeding may benefit from planned menstrual cycling with medroxyprogesterone acetate.
Reduction of Endometrial Hyperplasia in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Daily 0.625 mg Conjugated Estrogens
  • Dosing Information
  • When estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should also be initiated to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need progestin. Use of estrogen, alone or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Patients should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate (for example, 3-month to 6-month intervals) to determine if treatment is still necessary (see WARNINGS). For women who have a uterus, adequate diagnostic measures, such as endometrial sampling, when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP may be given in dosages of 5 or 10 mg daily for 12 to 14 consecutive days per month, in postmenopausal women receiving daily 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens, either beginning on the 1st day of the cycle or the 16th day of the cycle.
  • Patients should be started at the lowest dose.
  • The lowest effective dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate has not been determined.
Endometriosis - Pain
  • Dosing Information
  • Injectable suspension (depo-SUBQ Provera 104(TM)): 1 injection (104 mg per 0.65 mL) SUBQ into the anterior thigh or abdomen once every 3 months (12 to 14 weeks); do not use for longer than 2 years.
Secondary physiologic amenorrhea
  • Dosing Information
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP may be given in dosages of 5 or 10 mg daily for 5 to 10 days. A dose for inducing an optimum secretory transformation of an endometrium that has been adequately primed with either endogenous or exogenous estrogen is 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for 10 days. In cases of secondary amenorrhea, therapy may be started at any time. Progestin withdrawal bleeding usually occurs within three to seven days after discontinuing medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

Contraception

  • Dosing Information
  • Intramuscular suspension: 150 mg every 3 months by deep, IM injection in the gluteal or deltoid muscle; the first injection must be given only during the first 5 days of a normal menstrual period; only within the first 5 days postpartum if not breast-feeding; and if exclusively breastfeeding, only at the sixth postpartum week; subsequent injections should occur within 12 to 14 weeks
  • Subcutaneous suspension: 1 injection (104 mg per 0.65 mL) SUBQ into the anterior thigh or abdomen once every 3 months

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Medroxyprogesterone in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Medroxyprogesterone in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric) in the drug label.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Medroxyprogesterone in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Medroxyprogesterone in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:
  • Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding.
  • Known, suspected, or history of cancer of the breast.
  • Known or suspected estrogen- or progesterone-dependent neoplasia.
  • Active deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or a history of these conditions.
  • Active or recent (within the past year) arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and myocardial infarction).
  • Known liver dysfunction or disease.
  • Missed abortion.
  • As a diagnostic test for pregnancy.
  • Known hypersensitivity to the ingredients in medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets.
  • Known or suspected pregnancy.

Warnings

WARNINGS CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
WARNINGS

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS:

  • Estrogens with progestins should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Disorders and Dementia.)
  • The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) relative to placebo. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Disorders and Malignant Neoplasms, Breast Cancer.)
  • The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of the WHI study, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with daily CE 0.625 mg combined with MPA 2.5 mg, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. (See CLINICAL STUDIES and WARNINGS, Dementia, and PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use.)
  • In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and MPA and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.
  • See BOXED WARNINGS.

Cardiovascular Disorders.

Stroke

  • In the estrogen plus progestin substudy of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women receiving daily conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (31 versus 24 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)

Coronary heart disease

  • In the estrogen plus progestin substudy of WHI, no statistically significant increase of CHD events (defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], silent MI or CHD death was reported in women receiving CE/MPA compared to women receiving placebo (39 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year one, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)
  • In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n = 2,763, average age 66.7 years), in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estro- gen/Progestin Replacement Study [HERS]), treatment with daily CE 0.625 mg/ MPA 2.5 mg per day demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE/MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. There were more CHD events in the CE/MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during the subsequent years. Two thousand three hundred and twenty one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE/MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE)

  • In the estrogen plus progestin substudy of WHI, a statistically significant two-fold greater rate of VTE, (DVT and pulmonary embolism [PE]), was reported in women receiving daily CE/MPA compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was observed during the first year and persisted. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)

Malignant Neoplasms

Breast cancer

  • The use of estrogens and progestins by postmenopausal women has been reported to increase the risk of breast cancer in some studies. Observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use and appeared to return to baseline in about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen alone therapy. However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogens or among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration.
  • The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about this issue is the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) substudy of daily conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) (See CLINICAL STUDIES.)
  • In the estrogen plus progestin substudy of WHI, after a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the WHI substudy reported an increased risk of breast cancer in women who took daily CE/MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95 percent nominal confidence interval [nCI], 1.01 to 1.54), and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for estrogen plus progestin compared with placebo, respectively. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE/MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years, for estrogen plus progestin compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger and diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE/MPA group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors such as histologic subtype, grade, and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups.
  • The use of estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation. All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a health care provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results.

Endometrial cancer

  • An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in women with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2- to 12 times greater than in nonusers, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with the use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued.
  • Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer.

Ovarian cancer

  • The estrogen plus progestin substudy of WHI reported that daily CE/MPA increased the risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE/MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent nCI, 0.77 to 3.24) but was not statistically significant. The absolute risk for CE/MPA was 4.2 versus 2.7 cases per 10,000 women-years.

Dementia

  • In the estrogen plus progestin Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women aged 65 to 79 years was randomized to daily conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) or placebo.
  • After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE/MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE/MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21 to 3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE/MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women.

Visual Abnormalities


PRECAUTIONS

General

  • Addition of a progestin when a woman has not had a hysterectomy Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include a possible increased risk of breast cancer, adverse effects on lipoprotein metabolism (lowering HDL, raising LDL) and impairment of glucose tolerance.
  • Undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • In cases of undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding, adequate diagnostic measures are indicated.
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals with estrogen plus progestin therapy.
  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • In patients with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen plus progestin therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis and other complications.
  • Impaired liver function and past history of cholestatic jaundice
  • Estrogens plus progestins may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. For patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.
  • Fluid Retention
  • Progestins may cause some degree of fluid retention. Patients who have conditions which might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogen plus progestin are prescribed.
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Estrogen plus progestin therapy should be used with caution in individuals with severe hypocalcemia.
  • Exacerbation of other conditions
  • Estrogen plus progestin therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

  • The following laboratory results may be altered by the use of estrogen plus progestin therapy:
  • Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of anti-factor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.
  • Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay, T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Patients on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.
  • Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum (i.e., corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) leading to increased circulating corticosteroid and sex steroids, respectively. Free or biologically active hormone concentrations are unchanged. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).
  • Increased plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced LDL cholesterol concentration, increased triglycerides levels.
  • Impaired glucose metabolism.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • See BOXED WARNINGS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS.
  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
  • The following adverse reactions have been reported in women taking progestins, including medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets, without concomitant estrogens treatment:

Genitourinary System

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding (irregular, increase, decrease), change in menstrual flow, breakthrough bleeding, spotting, amenorrhea, changes in cervical erosion and cervical secretions.

Breasts

Cardiovascular

Gastrointestinal

Skin

Eyes

Central Nervous System

Miscellaneous

  • The following additional adverse reactions have been reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy.

Genitourinary System

Breasts

Cardiovascular

Gastrointestinal

Skin

Eyes

Central Nervous System

Miscellaneous

Postmarketing Experience

  • There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) Drug Interactions in the drug label.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): X

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate should not be used during pregnancy. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.)
  • There may be increased risks for hypospadias, clitoral enlargement and labial fusion in children whose mothers are exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, a clear association between these conditions with use of medroxyprogesterone acetate has not been established.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category
  • There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

  • There is no FDA guidance on use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate should not be used during lactation. Detectable amounts of progestin have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers receiving progestins.

Pediatric Use

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate is not intended for pediatric use and no clinical data has been collected in children.

Geriatic Use

  • Of the total number of subjects in the estrogen plus progestin substudy of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), 44 percent (n = 7,320) were 65 years and older, while 6.6 percent (n = 1,095) were 75 years and older. In women 75 and older compared to women less than 75 years of age, there was a higher relative risk of non-fatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in the estrogen plus progestin group versus placebo. In women greater than 75 years of age, the increased risk of non-fatal stroke and invasive breast cancer observed in the estrogen plus progestin group compared to placebo was 75 versus 24 per 10,000 women-years and 52 versus 12 per 10,000 women-years, respectively.
  • In the estrogen plus progestin Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women, aged 65 to 70 years, was randomized to receive daily CE 0.625 mg/MPA 2.5 mg or placebo. In the estrogen plus progestin group, after an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk (CE/MPA versus placebo) of probable dementia was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21 to 3.48). The absolute risk of developing probable dementia with CE/MPA was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years compared with placebo.
  • Eighty-two percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in women that were older than 70 in the CE/MPA group. The most common classification of probable dementia in the estrogen plus progestin and placebo groups was Alzheimer’s disease.
  • When data from the estrogen alone and estrogen plus progestin WHIMS substudies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19 to 2.60). Since both substudies were conducted in women aged 65 to 79 years, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women. (See BOXED WARNINGS and WARNINGS, Dementia.)

Gender

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

  • There is no FDA guidance one the use of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Secondary Amenorrhea

  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP may be given in dosages of 5 or 10 mg daily for 5 to 10 days. A dose for inducing an optimum secretory transformation of an endometrium that has been adequately primed with either endogenous or exogenous estrogen is 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for 10 days. In cases of secondary amenorrhea, therapy may be started at any time. Progestin withdrawal bleeding usually occurs within three to seven days after discontinuing medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Due to Hormonal Imbalance in the Absence of Organic Pathology

  • Beginning on the calculated 16th or 21st day of the menstrual cycle, 5 or 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate may be given daily for 5 to 10 days. To produce an optimum secretory transformation of an endometrium that has been adequately primed with either endogenous or exogenous estrogen, 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for 10 days beginning on the 16th day of the cycle is suggested. Progestin withdrawal bleeding usually occurs within three to seven days after discontinuing therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Patients with a past history of recurrent episodes of abnormal uterine bleeding may benefit from planned menstrual cycling with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

Reduction of Endometrial Hyperplasia in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Daily 0.625 mg Conjugated Estrogens

  • When estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should also be initiated to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need progestin. Use of estrogen, alone or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Patients should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate (for example, 3-month to 6-month intervals) to determine if treatment is still necessary (see WARNINGS). For women who have a uterus, adequate diagnostic measures, such as endometrial sampling, when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP may be given in dosages of 5 or 10 mg daily for 12 to 14 consecutive days per month, in postmenopausal women receiving daily 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens, either beginning on the 1st day of the cycle or the 16th day of the cycle.
  • Patients should be started at the lowest dose.
  • The lowest effective dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate has not been determined.

Monitoring

  • There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

  • There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in the drug label.

Overdosage

Pharmacology

Medroxyprogesterone image.png

Mechanism of Action

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) administered orally or parenterally in the recommended doses to women with adequate endogenous estrogen, transforms proliferative into secretory endometrium. Androgenic and anabolic effects have been noted, but the drug is apparently devoid of significant estrogenic activity. While parenterally administered MPA inhibits gonadotropin production, which in turn prevents follicular maturation and ovulation, available data indicate that this does not occur when the usually recommended oral dosage is given as single daily doses.

Structure

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Tablets USP contain medroxyprogesterone acetate, USP which is a derivative of progesterone. It is a white to off-white, odorless crystalline powder, stable in air, melting between 200 and 210°C. It is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in acetone and in dioxane, sparingly soluble in alcohol and in methanol, slightly soluble in ether, and insoluble in water.

  • The chemical name for medroxyprogesterone acetate is pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione, 17-(acetyloxy)-6-methyl-, (6α)-. The structural formula is:
Medroxyprogesterone structure.png
  • Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 2.5 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, methylcellulose, pregelatinized starch, and sodium lauryl sulfate.

Pharmacodynamics

  • There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The pharmacokinetics of MPA were determined in 20 postmenopausal women following a single-dose administration of eight medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg tablets or a single administra- tion of two medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg tablets under fasting conditions. In another study, the steady-state pharmacokinetics of MPA were determined under fasting conditions in 30 post- menopausal women following daily administration of one medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg tablet for 7 days. In both studies, MPA was quantified in serum using a validated gas chroma- tography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters of MPA after single and multiple doses of medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets were highly variable and are summarized in Table 1.
Medroxyprogesterone t 1.png

Absorption

  • No specific investigation on the absolute bioavailability of MPA in humans has been conducted. MPA is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and maximum MPA concentrations are obtained between 2 to 4 hours after oral administration.
  • Administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with food increases the bioavailability of MPA. A 10 mg dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate, taken immediately before or after a meal, in- creased MPA Cmax (50 to 70%) and AUC (18 to 33%). The half-life of MPA was not changed with food.

Distribution

  • MPA is approximately 90% protein bound, primarily to albumin; no MPA binding occurs with sex hormone binding globulin.

Metabolism

  • Following oral dosing, MPA is extensively metabolized in the liver via hydroxylation, with subsequent conjugation and elimination in the urine.

Excretion

  • Most MPA metabolites are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates with only minor amounts excreted as sulfates.

Special Populations:

Renal Insufficiency

  • The pharmacokinetics of MPA in patients with varying degrees of renal insufficiency have not been investigated.

Hepatic Insufficiency

  • MPA is almost exclusively eliminated via hepatic metabolism. In 14 patients with advanced liver disease, MPA disposition was significantly altered (reduced elimination). In patients with fatty liver, the mean percent dose excreted in the 24-hour urine as intact MPA after a 10 mg or 100 mg dose was 7.3% and 6.4%, respectively.

Drug Interactions

  • No formal pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies have been conducted with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

  • Long-term intramuscular administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate has been shown to produce mammary tumors in beagle dogs. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect associated with the oral administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate to rats and mice. Medroxyprogesterone acetate was not mutagenic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo genetic toxicity assays.
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate at high doses is an antifertility drug and high doses would be expected to impair fertility until the cessation of treatment.
  • Long-term continuous administration of estrogen plus progestin therapy, has shown an increased risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.)

Clinical Studies

Effects on the Endometrium

  • In a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 356 nonhysterectomized, postmenopausal women between 45 and 64 years of age randomized to receive placebo (n=119), 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen only (n=119), or 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen plus cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate (n=118), results showed a reduced risk of endometrial hyperplasia in the treatment group receiving 10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate plus 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens compared to the group receiving 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens only. See Table 2.
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  • In a second 1-year study, 832 postmenopausal women between 45 and 65 years of age were treated with daily 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen (days 1 to 28), plus either 5 mg cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate or 10 mg cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate (days 1 5to 28), or daily 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen only. The treatment groups receiving 5 or 10 mg cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate (days 15 to 28) plus daily conjugated estrogens showed a significantly lower rate of hyperplasia as compared to the conjugated estrogens only group. See Table 3.
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Women’s Health Initiative Studies

  • The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) enrolled approximately 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women in two substudies to assess the risks and benefits of either the use of daily oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), silent MI and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome studied. A “global index” included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), endometrial cancer (only in the CE/MPA substudy), colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other cause. The study did not evaluate the effects of CE or CE/MPA on menopausal symptoms.
  • The estrogen plus progestin substudy was stopped early. According to the predefined stopping rule, after an average follow-up of 5.2 years of treatment, the increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the “global index.” The absolute excess risk of events included in the “global index” was 19 per 10,000 women-years (relative risk [RR] 1.15, 95 percent, nominal confidence interval [nCI], 1.03 to 1.28).
  • For those outcomes included in the WHI “global index,” that reached statistical significance after 5.6 years of follow-up, the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE/MPA were 6 more CHD events, 7 more strokes, 10 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reduction per 10,000 women-years were 7 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. (See BOXED WARNINGS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.)
  • Results of the CE/MPA substudy which included 16,608 women (average age of 63 years, range 50 to 79; 83.9 percent White, 6.8 percent Black, 5.4 percent Hispanic, 3.9 percent Other) are presented in Table 4. These results reflect centrally adjudicated data after an average follow-up of 5.6 years.
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Women's Health Initiative Memory Study

  • The estrogen plus progestin Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47 percent were aged 65 to 69 years, 35 percent were 70 to 74 years, and 18 percent were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of daily conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared with placebo.
  • After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the estrogen plus progestin group (45 per 10,000 women-years) and 21 in the placebo group (22 per 10,000 women-years) were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia in the hormone therapy group was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21 to 3.48) compared to placebo.

How Supplied

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  • Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).

Storage

  • Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
  • KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

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Patient Counseling Information

Patient Information

  • Physicians are advised to discuss the Patient Information leaflet with patients for whom they prescribe medroxyprogesterone acetate.
  • There may be an increased risk of minor birth defects in children whose mothers are exposed to progestins during the first trimester of pregnancy. The possible risk to the male baby is hypospadias, a condition in which the opening of the penis is on the underside rather than the tip of the penis. This condition occurs naturally in approximately 5 to 8 per 1,000 male births. The risk may be increased with exposure to medroxyprogesterone acetate. Enlargement of the clitoris and fusion of the labia may occur in female babies. However, a clear association between hypospadias, clitoral enlargement and labial fusion with use of medroxyprogesterone acetate has not been established.
  • Inform the patient of the importance of reporting exposure to medroxyprogesterone acetate in early pregnancy.
  • Read this PATIENT INFORMATION before you start taking medroxyprogesterone acetate and read the patient information each time you refill your medroxyprogesterone acetate prescription. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your health care provider about your medical condition or your treatment.
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Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Medroxyprogesterone acetate (oral) interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Depo-Provera, Depo-Provera Contraceptive, Depo-SubQ Provera 104, Provera.

Look-Alike Drug Names

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

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