Lung cancer primary prevention
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Effective measures for the primary prevention of lung cancer include smoking cessation and avoidance of second hand smoking. Lifestyle changes, such as healthy diet rich with fruits and vegetables and regular exercise, might decrease the risk of developing cancer in general.
- Effective measures for the primary prevention of lung cancer include:
- Prevention is the most cost-effective means of fighting lung cancer.
- In most countries, industrial and domestic carcinogens have been identified and banned, tobacco smoking is however, still widespread.
- Eliminating tobacco smoking is the primary goal in the prevention of lung cancer, and smoking cessation is an important preventative strategy in this process.
- Policy interventions to decrease passive smoking in public areas, such as restaurants and workplaces, have become more common in many Western countries. California has taken a lead in banning smoking in public establishments in 1998.
- Ireland played a similar role in Europe in 2004, followed by Italy and Norway in 2005, Scotland as well as several others in 2006, and England in 2007.
- New Zealand has also banned smoking in public places as of 2004.
- The state of Bhutan has had a complete smoking ban since 2005.
- Ebbert JO, Yang P, Vachon CM, Vierkant RA, Cerhan JR, Folsom AR; et al. (2003). "Lung cancer risk reduction after smoking cessation: observations from a prospective cohort of women". J Clin Oncol. 21 (5): 921–6. PMID 12610194.
- Tse LA, Yu IT, Qiu H, Au JS, Wang XR, Tam W; et al. (2011). "Lung cancer decreased sharply in first 5 years after smoking cessation in Chinese men". J Thorac Oncol. 6 (10): 1670–6. doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182217bd4. PMID 21747301.
- Villanti AC, Jiang Y, Abrams DB, Pyenson BS (2013). "A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions". PLoS One. 8 (8): e71379. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071379. PMC 3737088. PMID 23940744.
- Barnard RJ (2004). "Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 1 (3): 233–239. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh036. PMC 538507. PMID 15841256.
- Vineis, P (Feb 2007). "Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study". Environmental Health. BioMed Central. 6: 7. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-7. PMID 17302981. Retrieved 2007-08-11. Unknown parameter
- Pandey, G (Feb 2005). "Bhutan's smokers face public ban". BBC. Retrieved 2007-09-07.
- Gray, N (Feb 2003). "A global approach to tobacco policy". Lung Cancer. BioMed Central. 39 (2): 113&ndash, 117. PMID 12581561.