List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to have its complete genome sequence determined.

This list of sequenced eukaryotic genomes contains all the eukaryotes known to have publicly available complete nuclear and organelle genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes are not included, nor are organelle only sequences.

DNA was first sequenced in 1977. The first free-living organism to have its genome completely sequenced was the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, in 1995. In 1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was the first eukaryote genome sequence to be released and in 1998 the first genome sequence for a multicellular eukaryote, Caenorhabditis elegans, was released.

Protists

Chromista

The Chromista are a group of protists that contains the algal phyla Heterokontophyta, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Members of this group are mostly studied for evolutionary interest.

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Guillardia theta Cryptomonad Model organism 551 Kb
(nucleomorph genome only)
464[1] Canadian Institute of Advanced Research, Philipps-University Marburg and the University of British Columbia 2001[1]
Thalassiosira pseudonana
Strain:CCMP 1335
Diatom 2.5 Mb 11,242[2] Joint Genome Institute and the University of Washington 2004[2]

Alveolata

Alveolata are a group of protists which includes the Ciliophora, Apicomplexa and Dinoflagellata. Members of this group are of particular interest to science as the cause of serious human and livestock diseases.

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Cryptosporidium hominis
Strain:TU502
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen 10.4 Mb 3,994[3] Virginia Commonwealth University 2004[3]
Cryptosporidium parvum
C- or genotype 2 isolate
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen 16.5 Mb 3,807[4] UCSF and University of Minnesota 2004[4]
Paramecium tetraurelia Ciliate Model organism 72 Mb 39,642[5] Genoscope 2006[5]
Plasmodium falciparum
Clone:3D7
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen (malaria) 22.9 Mb 5,268[6] Malaria Genome Project Consortium 2002[6]
Plasmodium yoelii yoelii
Strain:17XNL
Parasitic protozoan Rodent pathogen (malaria) 23.1 Mb 5,878[7] TIGR and NMRC 2002[7]
Theileria parva
Strain:Muguga
Parasitic protozoan Cattle pathogen (African east coast fever) 8.3 Mb 4,035[8] TIGR and the International Livestock Research Institute 2005[8]
Tetrahymena thermophila Ciliate Model organism 104 Mb 27,000[9] 2006[9]

Excavata

Excavata is a group of related free living and symbiotic protists; it includes the Metamonada, Loukozoa, Euglenozoa and Percolozoa. They are researched for their role in human disease.

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Leishmania major
Strain:Friedlin
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen 32.8 Mb 8,272[10] Sanger Institute 2005[10]
Trichomonas vaginalis Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen (Trichomoniasis) 160 Mb 59,681[11] TIGR 2007[11]
Trypanosoma brucei
Strain:TREU927/4 GUTat10.1
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen (Sleeping sickness) 26 Mb 9,068 [12] Sanger Institute and TIGR 2005[12]
Trypanosoma cruzi
Strain:CL Brener TC3
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen (Chagas disease) 34 Mb 22,570[13] TIGR, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute and Uppsala University 2005[13]

Amoebozoa

Amoebozoa are a group of motile amoeboid protists, members of this group move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods. The best known member of this group is the slime mould which has been studied for centuries; other members include the Archamoebae, Tubulinea and Flabellinea. Some Amoeboza cause disease.

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Dictyostelium discoideum
Strain:AX4
Slime mold Model organism 34 Mb 12,500[14] Consortium from University of Cologne, Baylor College of Medicine and the Sanger Centre 2005[14]
Entamoeba histolytica
HM1:IMSS
Parasitic protozoan Human pathogen (amoebic dysentery) 23.8 Mb 9,938[15] TIGR, Sanger Institute and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 2005[15]


Plants

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Arabidopsis thaliana
Ecotype:Columbia
Wild mustard Model plant 120 Mb 25,498[16] Arabidopsis Genome Initiative[17] 2000[16]
Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Strain:10D
Red alga Simple eukaryote 16.5 Mb 5,331[18] University of Tokyo, Rikkyo University, Saitama University and Kumamoto University 2004[18]
Oryza sativa
ssp indica
Rice Crop and model organism 420 Mb 32-50,000[19] Beijing Genomics Institute, Zhejiang University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences 2002[19]
Oryza sativa
ssp japonica
Rice Crop and model organism 466 Mb 46,022-55,615[20] Syngenta and Myriad Genetics 2002[20]
Ostreococcus tauri Green alga Simple eukaryote 12.6 Mb Laboratoire Arago 2006[21]
Populus trichocarpa Balsam poplar or Black Cottonwood Carbon sequestration, model tree, commercial use (timber), and comparison to A. thaliana 550 Mb 45,555[22] The International Poplar Genome Consortium 2006[22]
Vitis vinifera Grapevine PN40024 Fruit crop 490 Mb[23] 30,434[23] The French-Italian Public Consortium for Grapevine Genome Characterization 2007[23]

Fungi

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Ashbya gossypii
Strain:ATCC 10895
Fungus Plant pathogen 9.2 Mb 4,718[24] SyngentaAG and University of Basel 2004[24]
Aspergillus fumigatus
Strain:Af293
Fungus Human pathogen 29.4 Mb 9,926[25] Sanger Institute, University of Manchester, TIGR, Institut Pasteur, Nagasaki University, University of Salamanca and OpGen 2005[25]
Aspergillus nidulans
Strain:FGSC A4
Fungus Model organism 30 Mb 9,500[26] 2005[26]
Aspergillus niger
Strain:CBS 513.88
Fungus Biotechnology - fermentation 33.9 Mb 14,165[27] 2007[27]
Aspergillus oryzae
Strain:RIB40
Fungus Used to ferment soy 37 Mb 12,074[28] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation 2005[28]
Candida glabrata
Strain:CBS138
Fungus Human pathogen 12.3 Mb 5,283[29] Génolevures Consortium [30] 2004[29]
Cryptococcus (Filobasidiella) neoformans
JEC21
Fungus Human pathogen 20 Mb 6,500[31] TIGR and Stanford University 2005[31]
Debaryomyces hansenii
Strain:CBS767
Yeast Cheese ripening 12.2 Mb 6,906[29] Génolevures Consortium 2004[29]
Encephalitozoon cuniculi Microsporidium Human pathogen 2.9 Mb 1,997[32] Genoscope and Université Blaise Pascal 2001[32]
Kluyveromyces lactis
Strain:CLIB210
Yeast 10-12 Mb 5,329[29] Génolevures Consortium 2004[29]
Magnaporthe grisea Fungus Plant pathogen 37.8 Mb 11,109[33] 2005[33]
Neurospora crassa Fungus Model eukaryote 40 Mb 10,082[26] Broad Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, University of Kentucky, and the University of Kansas 2003[26]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Strain:S288C
Baker's yeast Model eukaryote 12.1 Mb 6,294[34] International Collaboration for the Yeast Genome Sequencing[35] 1996[34]
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Strain:972h
Yeast Model eukaryote 14 Mb 4,824[36] Sanger Institute and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 2002[36]
Yarrowia lipolytica
Strain:CLIB99
Yeast Industrial uses 20 Mb 6,703[29] Génolevures Consortium 2004[29]


Animals

Organism Type Relevance Genome size Number of genes predicted Organization Year of completion
Anopheles gambiae
Strain: PEST
Mosquito Vector of malaria 27.8 Mb 13,683[37] Celera Genomics and Genoscope 2002[37]
Apis mellifera Honey bee 1,8Gb 10,157[38] The Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium 2006[38]
Bombyx mori
Strain:p50T
Moth (domestic silk worm) Silk production 530 Mb University of Tokyo and National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences 2004[39]
Caenorhabditis briggsae Nematode worm For comparison with C. elegans 104 Mb 19,500[40] Washington University, Sanger Institute and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 2003[40]
Caenorhabditis elegans
Strain:Bristol N2
Nematode worm Model animal 97 Mb 19,000[41] Washington University and the Sanger Institute 1998[41]
Canis familiaris Dog 2.4 Gb 19,300[42] Broad Institute and Agencourt Bioscience 2005[42]
Ciona intestinalis Tunicate Simple chordate 116.7 Mb 16,000[43] Joint Genome Institute 2003[43]
Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly Model animal 165 Mb 13,600[44] Celera, UC Berkeley, Baylor College of Medicine, European DGP 2000[44]
Gallus gallus Chicken 1 Gb 20-23,000[45] International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium 2004[45]
Homo sapiens Human 3.2 Gb 25,000[46] Human Genome Project Consortium and Celera Genomics Drafts 2001;[47][48] all chromosomes complete 2006[49]
Monodelphis domestica Gray Short-tailed Opossum First marsupial genome sequenced

Model marsupial

3.475 Gb 2007[50]
Mus musculus Mouse Model mammal 2.5 Gb 24,174[51] International Collaboration for the Mouse Genome Sequencing[52] 2002[51]
Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee Closest human relative 3.1 Gb Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2005[53]
Rattus norvegicus
BN/SsNHsdMCW
Rat Model mammal 2.75 Gb 21,166[54] Rat Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 2004[54]
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Sea urchin Model eukaryote 814 Mb 23,300[55] Sea Urchin Genome Sequencing Consortium 2006[55]
Takifugu rubripes Puffer fish Vertebrate with small genome 390 Mb 22-29,000[56] International Fugu Genome Consortium[57] 2002[58]
Tetraodon nigroviridis Puffer fish Vertebrate with compact genome 340 Mb[59] 22,400[59] Genoscope and the Broad Institute 2004[59]

See also

References

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