List of phytochemicals and foods they are prominent in
While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or phytochemicals is limited.
- Flavonoids (polyphenols) – red, blue, purple pigments.
- Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
- Gingerol – ginger.
- Kaempferol – strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives.
- Myricetin – grapes, walnuts.
- Resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts.
- Rutin – citrus fruits, buckwheat, parsley, tomato, apricot, rhubarb, tea.
- Catechins – white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, black-eyed peas.
- (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG)– green tea;
- (-)-Epicatechin 3-gallate
- Theaflavin – black tea;
- Theaflavin-3-gallate – black tea;
- Theaflavin-3'-gallate – black tea;
- Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate – black tea;
- Anthocyanins (flavonals) and Anthocyanidins – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables.
- Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
- Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
- Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
- Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- Malvidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- Isoflavones (phytoestrogens)
- Coumestans (phytoestrogens)
- Phenolic acids
- Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes.
- Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy.
- Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
- Tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries.
- Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
- Capsaicin – chilli peppers.
- Curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)
- Hydroxycinnamic acids
- Lignans (phytoestrogens) – seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran (wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables.
- Silymarin – artichokes, milk thistle.
- Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
- Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
- Pinoresinol and lariciresinol –  sesame seed, Brassica vegetables
- Tyrosol esters
- Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)
- Carotenes - orange pigments
- α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
- β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
- Lycopene – tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots.
- Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
- Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
- Xanthophylls - yellow pigments.
- Canthaxanthin – paprika.
- Cryptoxanthin – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
- Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
- Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
- Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, legumes, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear.
- Rubixanthin – rose hips.
- Carotenes - orange pigments
- Saponins – soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.
- Phytosterols – almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
- Tocopherols (vitamin E)
- omega-3,6,9 fatty acids – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts.
- Oleanolic acid - American pokeweed, java apple, cloves, honey mesquite, garlic, many Syzygium species.
- Ursolic acid - apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes.
- Betulinic acid - Ber tree, white birch, Sytropical carnivorous plants Triphyophyllum peltatum and Ancistrocladus heyneanus, Diospyros leucomelas a member of the persimmon family, Tetracera boiviniana, the jambul (Syzygium formosanum), many Syzygium species.
- Moronic acid - Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe
- Dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates)
- Thiosulphonates (allium compounds)
- Indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens.
- sulforaphane - broccoli family
- 3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM - broccoli family
- Sinigrin - broccoli family
- Allicin - garlic
- Alliin - garlic
- Allyl isothiocyanate - horseradish, mustard, wasabi
- Piperine - black pepper
- Syn-propanethial-S-oxide - cut onions.
Other organic acids
- Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
- Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
- Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes.
- Anacardic acid - cashews, mangoes.