Lactulose

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Lactulose
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Adeel Jamil, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Lactulose is a gastrointestinal, laxative and hyperosmotic agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of constipation. Common adverse reactions include bloating symptom, diarrhea, epigastric pain, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, muscular cramps, intestinal cramps..

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

  • For the treatment of constipation. In patients with a history of chronic constipation, lactulose solution therapy increases the number of bowel movements per day and the number of days on which bowel movements occur.
Dosing Information
  • The usual dose is 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls (15 to 30 mL, containing 10 g to 20 g of lactulose) daily. The dose may be increased to 60 mL daily if necessary. Twenty-four to 48 hours may be required to produce a normal bowel movement.
  • Note: Some patients have found that lactulose solution may be more acceptable when mixed with fruit juice, water or milk.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Lactulose in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Lactulose in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Lactulose in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Lactulose in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Lactulose in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • Since lactulose solution contains galactose (less than 1.6 g/15 mL), it is contraindicated in patients who require a low galactose diet.

Warnings

  • A theoretical hazard may exist for patients being treated with lactulose solution who may be required to undergo electrocautery procedures during proctoscopy or colonoscopy. Accumulation of H2 gas in significant concentration in the presence of an electrical spark may result in an explosive reaction. Although this complication has not been reported with lactulose, patients on lactulose therapy undergoing such procedures should have a thorough bowel cleansing with a non-fermentable solution. Insufflation of CO2 as an additional safeguard may be pursued but is considered to be a redundant measure.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Lactulose in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

  • Results of preliminary studies in humans and rats suggest that non-absorbable antacids given concurrently with lactulose may inhibit the desired lactulose-induced drop in colonic pH. Therefore, a possible lack of desired effect of treatment should be taken into consideration before such drugs are given concomitantly with lactulose solution.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): B

Teratogenic Effects
  • Reproduction studies have been performed in mice, rats, and rabbits at doses up to 3 or 6 times the usual human oral dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lactulose. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Lactulose in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Lactulose during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lactulose solution is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose with respect to pediatric patients.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Lactulose in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Lactulose in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Lactulose in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Lactulose in the drug label.

Overdosage

Signs And Symptoms
  • Oral LD50: The acute oral LD50 of the drug is 48.8 mL/kg in mice and greater than 30 mL/kg in rats.

Pharmacology

Lactulose structure.png
Lactulose ball-and-stick.png
Lactulose
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-O-β-D-Galactopyranosyl-β-D-fructofuranose
OR
(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-((2R,3S,4S,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol
Identifiers
CAS number 4618-18-2
ATC code A06AD11
PubChem 11333
DrugBank DB00581
Chemical data
Formula C12H22O11 
Mol. mass 342.296 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Poorly absorbed
Metabolism 100% in colon by enteric bacteria
Half life 1.7-2 hours
Excretion Fecal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B(US)

Legal status

P(UK)

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

  • Since lactulose does not exert its effect until it reaches the colon, and since transit time through the colon may be slow, 24 to 48 hours may be required to produce the desired bowel movement.
  • Lactulose given orally to man and experimental animals resulted in only small amounts reaching the blood. Urinary excretion has been determined to be 3% or less and is essentially complete within 24 hours.

Structure

  • Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide in solution form for oral administration. Each 15 mL of lactulose solution contains: 10 g lactulose (and less than 1.6 g galactose, less than 1.2 g lactose, and 0.1 g or less of fructose).
  • The chemical name for lactulose is 4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-fructofuranose. It has the following structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Lactulose in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacokinetics of Lactulose in the drug label.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Nonclinical Toxicology of Lactulose in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility=

  • There are no known human data on long-term potential for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility.
  • There are no known animal data on long-term potential for mutagenicity.
  • Administration of lactulose solution in the diet of mice for 18 months in concentrations of 3 and 10 percent (v/w) did not produce any evidence of carcinogenicity.
  • In studies of mice, rats, and rabbits, doses of lactulose solution up to 6 or 12 mL/kg/day produced no deleterious effects in breeding, conception, or parturition.

How Supplied

  • Lactulose Solution is a natural colored and an unflavored solution available in 8 fl oz (237 mL) and 1 quart (946 mL) bottles.
  • Lactulose Solution contains lactulose 670 mg/mL (10 g/15 mL).
  • Under recommended storage conditions, a normal darkening of color may occur. Such darkening is characteristic of sugar solutions and does not affect therapeutic action. Prolonged exposure to temperatures above 86°F (30°C) or to direct light may cause extreme darkening and turbidity which may be pharmaceutically objectionable. If this condition develops, do not use.
  • Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure.
  • Manufactured and packaged by:
  • Fresenius Kabi Austria GmbH
  • Estermannstraße 17
  • 4020 Linz Austria
  • Distributed by:
  • Actavis Inc.
  • 60 Columbia Rd., Bldg. B
  • Morristown, NJ 07960 USA
  • FORM NO. 1358
  • Rev. January 2011

Storage

  • Store between 36°-86°F (2°-30°C). Do not freeze.

Images

Drug Images

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This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Lactulose Package Label.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • In the event that an unusual diarrheal condition occurs, contact your physician.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Lactulose interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • Kristalose®
  • Cholac®
  • Constilac®
  • Constulose®
  • Generlac®
  • Enulose

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Lactulose Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.


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