|IUPAC name||(2R,3R,4R,5R)-6-[ [(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydropyranyl]oxy]hexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol|
3D model (JSmol)
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|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Isomalt is a natural sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol, which is primarily used for its sugar-like physical properties. It has only a small impact on blood sugar levels, does not promote tooth decay, and has one half the calories of sugar. However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a very real risk of gastric distress, including flatulence and diarrhea, when consumed in large quantities. Isomalt is typically blended with a high intensity sweetener such as sucralose, so that the mixture has approximately the sweetness of sugar.
Isomalt is a disaccharide composed of the two sugars glucose and mannitol. It is an odourless, white, crystalline substance containing about 5% water of crystallisation. Isomalt has a minimal cooling effect (positive heat of solution), lower than many other sugar alcohols, particularly xylitol and erythritol. Isomalt is unusual as it is a natural sugar alcohol that is produced from beets. An interesting use of isomalt is found in the product DiabetiSweet, a sugar substitute sold for baking use and composed of a blend of isomalt and acesulfame potassium, but it has a bitter taste (due to the acesulfame potassium) and lacks the caramelizing properties of sugar.
Isomalt is manufactured in a two-stage process in which sugar is first transformed into isomaltulose, a reducing disaccharide (6-O-α-Template:Sc-glucopyranosido-Template:Sc-fructose). The isomaltulose is then hydrogenated, using a Raney metal catalytic converter. The final product—isomalt—is an equimolar composition of 6-O-α-Template:Sc-glucopyranosido-Template:Sc-sorbitol (1,6-GPS) and 1-O-α-Template:Sc-glucopyranosido-Template:Sc-mannitol-dihydrate (1,1-GPM-dihydrate).
Isomalt has been approved for use in the United States since 1990. It is also permitted for use in Australia and New Zealand.
- Wohlfarth, Christian. CRC Handbook of Enthalpy Data of Polymer-Solvent Systems. CRC Press, 2006. Books result: ISBN 0849393612
- IPCS information page on Isomalt
- Homepage of PALATINIT GmbH which develops, manufactures and markets ISOMALT